Licensure Loopholes: Missouri

Exiting Ineffective Teachers Policy


The state should close loopholes that allow teachers who have not met licensure requirements to continue teaching.

Does not meet
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). Licensure Loopholes: Missouri results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from:

Analysis of Missouri's policies

Missouri will issue a Temporary Authorization Certificate (TAC) to teacher candidates who have a bachelor's degree in their intended field or in a closely related field and who graduated with at least a 2.5 GPA. Candidates are not required to pass a certification test to receive this credential. This certificate is valid for one year and can be renewed if the teacher receives positive evaluations, takes the Praxis II exams and completes professional education coursework.

Missouri may also issue a two-year, nonrenewable provisional certificate to individuals who have either completed or are close to completing the academic coursework needed for licensure but who have not necessarily passed their licensure tests.  


Recommendations for Missouri

Ensure that all teachers pass required subject-matter licensing tests before they enter the classroom.
All students are entitled to teachers who know the subject matter they are teaching. Permitting individuals who have not yet passed state licensing tests to teach neglects the needs of students, instead extending personal consideration to adults who may not be able to meet minimal state standards. Missouri should ensure that all teachers pass licensing tests— an important minimum benchmark for entering the profession—before entering the classroom.

Limit exceptions to one year.
There might be limited and exceptional circumstances under which conditional or emergency licenses need to be granted. In these instances, it is reasonable for a state to give teachers up to one year to pass required licensing tests. Missouri's current policy puts students at risk by allowing teachers to teach on a Temporary Authorization certificate indefinitely without passing required licensing tests as well as by allowing teachers to teach for two years on a provisional certificate without passing required licensing tests. 

State response to our analysis

Missouri recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.

Research rationale

Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20.  "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).