Licensure Loopholes

Exiting Ineffective Teachers Policy

Licensure Loopholes

The state should close loopholes that allow teachers who have not met licensure requirements to continue teaching.

Best practices

Colorado, IllinoisMississippi, and New Jersey require all new teachers to pass all required subject-matter tests as a condition of initial licensure.

Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). Licensure Loopholes national results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/national/Licensure-Loopholes-10
Best practice 4

States

Meets goal 4

States

Nearly meets goal 13

States

Meets goal in part 2

States

Meets a small part of goal 2

States

Does not meet goal 26

States

How long do states permit new teachers to teach under emergency or provisional licenses without passing content licensing tests?

2011
Figure details

No deferral : CO, IL, MS, NJ, NM, NV, SC, UT, VA

Up to 1 year: AL, AR, CT, DC, GA, IA, KY, MA, ND, OH, OK, RI, WV, WY

Up to 2 years: CA, KS, MD, NY, SD, TN, VT, WA

3 years or more (or unspecified): AK, AZ, DE, FL, HI, ID, IN, LA, ME, MI, MN, MO, NC, NH, OR, PA, TX, WI

Footnotes
IA: Iowa only requires subject-matter testing for elementary teachers.
UT: There is a potential loophole in Utah, as alternate route teachers appear able to delay passage of subject-matter tests.
WY: Wyoming only requires subject-matter testing for elementary and social studies teachers.

Do states mitigate risk associated with emergency or provisional licenses?

2011
Figure details

Yes. State maintains no emergency or provisional licenses.: CO, IL, NJ, NM, NV, SC, UT, VA

Partially. State maintains nonrenewable emergency or provisional licenses.: AK, AL, AR, CA, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, KS, KY, MA, MD, NC, ND, NH, NY, OH, OK, OR, RI, VT, WA, WV, WY

No. State maintains renewable emergency or provisional licenses.: AZ, HI, IN, LA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, PA, SD, TN, TX, WI

Footnotes
ND: License is renewable, but only if licensure tests are passed.
OH: License is renewable, but only if licensure tests are passed.

Research rationale

Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20.  "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).