IA: Iowa only requires subject-matter testing for elementary teachers.
UT: There is a potential loophole in Utah, as alternate route teachers appear able to delay passage of subject-matter tests.
WY: Wyoming only requires subject-matter testing for elementary and social studies teachers.
ND: License is renewable, but only if licensure tests are passed.
OH: License is renewable, but only if licensure tests are passed.
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How we graded
Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20. "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).