The state should ensure that substitute teachers are appropriately placed and assessed in the classroom. This goal was new in 2017 and was not graded.
Oregon offers two types of substitute licenses. The Substitute Teaching License requires a bachelor's degree and a non-provisional teaching license or completion of an Oregon teacher preparation program. The Restricted Substitute License requires a bachelor's degree and district sponsorship.
Length of Assignment: Oregon permits holders of the Substitute Teaching license to teach in the same classroom assignment for up to one year. If it is necessary to extend the assignment beyond one year, the substitute must obtain an emergency license. Holders of the Restricted Substitute License are permitted to teach for up to 10 consecutive days in the same assignment.
Evaluation of Long-Term Substitutes: Oregon has no requirements for the evaluation of any of its substitute teachers.
Oregon Administrative Rules 584-210-0140;0150
Require long-term substitute teachers to be evaluated.
Oregon should maintain standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for licensed teachers for extended periods of time. Oregon can help ensure that substitute teachers are held to high standards and have access to the supports necessary to improve their practice by requiring evaluations—
which it may find appropriate to modify from its standard, state-required teacher evaluations— of long-term substitutes.
Oregon recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
Research finds that teacher absences negatively affect student achievement and growth. While some of this is attributable to the disruption of regular classroom practices and instruction, it may also be attributable to substitute teacher quality. The gap in instructional quality and daily productivity when a regular teacher is replaced by a substitute teacher is significant. However, absences covered by substitutes licensed by the state are not as detrimental to student achievement as those covered by non-licensed substitutes. Some research hypothesizes that the low-skill level and mobility of substitute teachers may contribute to the reduction in instructional focus and quality and that even when substitute teachers are good instructors, they may be unable to effectively implement a teacher of record's long-term instructional strategies. Parents, teachers, principals, and students have concerns about substitute teachers' quality and qualifications. States should maintain rigorous standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for teachers for long stretches of time.