Licensure Loopholes: Oregon

2011 Exiting Ineffective Teachers Policy


The state should close loopholes that allow teachers who have not met licensure requirements to continue teaching.

Does not meet
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). Licensure Loopholes: Oregon results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from:

Analysis of Oregon's policies

Oregon allows new teachers who have not met licensure requirements to teach under the nonrenewable Restricted Transitional Teaching License, which is valid for three years and is issued one year at a time. Eligibility requirements include a bachelor's degree and a letter from the employing district describing a particular need for the applicant's teacher qualification. Upon expiration of the certificate, applicants are expected to meet the requirements of an initial license. 

In addition, the state makes available an Emergency Teaching License when there are extenuating circumstances that prevent a teacher from completing the initial licensure requirements within the three years allotted by the Restricted Transitional Teaching License. Emergency Teaching Licenses offer extensions for up to one year and may be issued upon joint application from a teacher and the employing district.  


Recommendations for Oregon

Ensure that all teachers pass required subject-matter licensing tests before they enter the classroom.
All students are entitled to teachers who know the subject matter they are teaching. Permitting individuals who have not yet passed state licensing tests to teach neglects the needs of students, instead extending personal consideration to adults who may not be able to meet minimal state standards. Oregon should ensure that all teachers pass licensing tests—an important minimum benchmark for entering the profession—before entering the classroom.

Limit exceptions to one year.
There might be limited and exceptional circumstances under which conditional or emergency licenses need to be granted. In these instances, it is reasonable for a state to give teachers up to one year to pass required licensing tests. Oregon's current policy puts students at risk by allowing teachers to teach on a Restricted License for up to three—and sometimes four—years without passing required licensing tests. 

State response to our analysis

Oregon was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis. In addition, the state noted that it allows the Restricted Transitional Teaching License (RTTL) for one year at a time in order to monitor completion of licensure requirements. Oregon added that it rarely grants one-year extensions to any license using the Emergency Teaching License. These licenses are issued primarily for 30 to 120 days, unless there are extreme extenuating circumstances (death in family, etc.), which may merit a one-year extension. Currently there are only 26 active Emergency Teaching Licenses, and they cover all emergencies demonstrated by a district.

Finally, Oregon acknowledged that the requirement for the RTTL to pass the subject-matter test prior to licensure merits consideration by the state. 

How we graded

Teachers who have not passed licensing tests may place students at risk.

While states may need a regulatory basis for filling classroom positions with a few people who do not hold full teaching credentials, many of the regulations permitting this put the instructional needs of children at risk, often year after year. For example, schools can make liberal use of provisional certificates or waivers provided by the state if they fill classroom positions with instructors who have completed a teacher preparation program but have not passed their state licensing tests. These allowances are permitted for up to three years in some states. The unfortunate consequence is that students' needs are neglected in an effort to extend personal consideration to adults who cannot meet minimal state standards.

While some flexibility may be necessary because licensing tests are not always administered with the needed frequency, the availability of provisional certificates and waivers year after year signals that even the state does not put much value on its licensing standards or what they represent. States accordingly need to ensure that all persons given full charge of children's learning are required to pass the relevant licensing tests in their first year of teaching, ideally before they enter the classroom. Licensing tests are an important minimum benchmark in the profession, and states that allow teachers to postpone passing these tests are abandoning one of the basic responsibilities of licensure.

Research rationale

Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20.  "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).