The state should close loopholes that allow teachers who have not met licensure requirements to continue teaching.
Ohio allows teachers who have not met standard licensure requirements for a particular endorsement area to teach in that area under a supplemental license. The license must be requested by the employing superintendent and is only issued to those who hold a currently valid Ohio standard certificate "to teach in a supplemental area while they are in the process of obtaining standard licensure for that area." The certificate is valid for one year, and although it is renewable twice, successful completion of the Praxis II content knowledge test for the particular licensure area is required for the first renewal.
Ohio Supplemental Teacher License http://www.ode.state.oh.us/GD/DocumentManagement/DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=11292 Ohio Administrative Code 3301-24-14
Ensure that all teachers pass required subject-matter licensing tests before they enter the classroom.
While Ohio's policy minimizes the risks brought about by having teachers in classrooms who lack sufficient or appropriate subject-matter knowledge by offering its supplemental license for one year only before requiring successful completion of the Praxis II, the state could take its policy a step further and require all teachers to meet subject-matter license requirements prior to entering the classroom.
Ohio recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20. "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).