Retaining Effective Teachers Policy
The state should base licensure advancement on evidence of teacher effectiveness. This goal was consistent between 2015 and 2017.
Evidence of Effectiveness: Ohio's requirements for licensure advancement and renewal are not based on evidence of teacher effectiveness.
Advancing to a Professional License: Ohio requires completion of the Resident Educator Program to advance from the resident educator license to the professional teaching license. The state also offers optional advanced steps on the career ladder: a senior professional educator license and a lead professional educator license. To advance to the senior professional educator license, a teacher must earn a master's degree; have nine years of experience; and demonstrate effective practice at the accomplished or distinguished level of performance, specifically by successful completion of the master teacher portfolio and designation as a master teacher. To advance to the lead professional educator license, teachers must earn a master's degree; have nine years of experience; and demonstrate effective practice at the distinguished level of performance, specifically by holding National Board certification or successful completion of the master teacher portfolio with designation as a master teacher and by holding the teacher leader endorsement.
Renewing a Professional License: Ohio requires either six semester hours of coursework related to classroom teaching and/or the area of licensure, or 18 continuing education units (180 contact hours) to renew the professional license. Renewal of the advanced steps on the career ladder requires similar coursework requirements as well as maintenance of articulated certifications and endorsements.
Ohio Administrative Code 3301-24-05, -08, -16, -17, -25, -26
Require evidence of effectiveness as a part of teacher licensing policy.
Ohio should require evidence of teacher effectiveness to be a factor in determining whether teachers may renew or advance to a higher-level license.
Discontinue license renewal requirements with no direct connection to classroom effectiveness.
Although targeted requirements may potentially expand teacher knowledge and improve teacher practice, Ohio's nonspecific coursework requirements for license renewal merely call for teachers to complete a certain amount of seat time. These requirements do not correlate with teacher effectiveness.
End requirement tying teacher advancement to master's degrees.
Ohio should remove its mandate that teachers obtain a master's degree for optional license advancement. Research is clear that master's degrees generally do not have any significant correlation with classroom performance. Rather, advancement should be based on evidence of teacher effectiveness.
Ohio recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
9A: Licensure Advancement
The reason for probationary licensure should be to determine teacher effectiveness. Most states grant new teachers a probationary license that must later be converted to an advanced or professional license. A probationary period is sound policy as it provides an opportunity to determine whether individuals merit professional licensure. However, very few states require any determination of teacher performance or effectiveness in deciding whether a teacher will advance from the probationary license. Instead, states generally require probationary teachers to fulfill a set of requirements to receive advanced certification. Therefore, ending the probationary period is based on whether a checklist has been completed rather than on teacher performance and effectiveness.
Most state requirements for achieving professional certification have not been shown to affect teacher effectiveness. Unfortunately, not only do most states fail to connect advanced certification to actual evidence of teacher effectiveness, but also the requirements teachers must most often meet are not even related to teacher effectiveness. The most common requirement for professional licensure is completion of additional coursework, often resulting in a master's degree. Requiring teachers to obtain additional training in their teaching area would be meaningful; however, the requirements are usually vague, allowing the teacher to fulfill coursework requirements from long menus that include areas having no connection or use to the teacher in the classroom. The research evidence on requiring a master's degree is quite conclusive: with rare exceptions, these degrees have not been shown to make teachers more effective. This is likely due in no small part to the fact that teachers may not attain master's degrees in their subject areas.
In addition to their dubious value, these requirements may also serve as a disincentive to teacher retention. Talented probationary teachers may be unwilling to invest time and resources in more education coursework. Further, they may well pursue advanced degrees that facilitate leaving teaching.