Program Entry: New York

Alternate Routes Policy

Goal

The state should require alternate routes to limit admission to candidates with strong academic backgrounds, while also being flexible to the needs of nontraditional candidates.This goal has been revised since 2017.

Meets a small part
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2019). Program Entry: New York results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/NY-Program-Entry-93

Analysis of New York's policies

New York offers two alternate certification pathways. The Transitional B is for candidates with a bachelor's degree and the Transitional C (Intensive) is for career changer candidates with master's, graduate, or professional degrees. Alternative Teacher Preparation (ATP) programs offered by colleges and universities operate in partnership with local school districts to prepare teachers for rapid entry into shortage areas. 

Academic Proficiency Requirements: New York requires that all candidates seeking to enroll in an ATP Program have a 3.0 undergraduate GPA or a positive recommendation from the offering institution stating that the candidate has the knowledge and skills required for success in the program. Candidates also need a minimum score on the GRE, or a substantially equivalent admission assessment, set by the ATP institution.

Subject-matter Testing Requirements: New York requires all candidates applying to an ATP Program to pass the Educating All Students (EAS) test and the Content Specialty Test (CST) in the subject area prior to commencing teaching, but not as a condition for admission.

Coursework Requirements: New York requires that all candidates seeking to enroll in an ATP Program have completed a baccalaureate or graduate degree program with a major in the subject area of the certificate sought (for middle/high school subjects) or one of the liberal arts and sciences (for elementary grades). Candidates must have at least 30 semester hours in the certification area, that may include up to 12 semester hours in related subjects. There are no test-out options for any alternate route candidates.
In addition, Transitional B and C Certificate candidates must complete workshops on child abuse identification and reporting, school violence intervention and prevention, and the Dignity for All Students Act.

Citation

Recommendations for New York

Strengthen content knowledge requirements for admission.
New York should ensure that all alternate routes require candidates to pass the subject-matter licensing test as a prerequisite for admission. Prospective teachers in nontraditional preparation programs should focus their efforts on areas such as pedagogy and classroom management, not on mastering their content. Teachers without sufficient subject-matter knowledge place students at risk, so the licensure test serves as an important guardrail for alternate route candidates.

Exempt content coursework requirements.
New York should waive content knowledge coursework requirements for all candidates who demonstrate sufficient subject-matter knowledge on a rigorous licensure test(s). Exacting coursework requirements, such as a major, in a particular subject area could dissuade talented individuals who lack precisely the right courses but possess the requisite subject-matter expertise from pursing a teaching career.

State response to our analysis

New York was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts necessary for this analysis.

Updated: November 2019

How we graded

5A: Program Entry
 
  • Rigorous Admissions Requirement: With some accommodation for successful performance in a previous professional career, alternate routes should be required to set a rigorous bar by requiring candidates to provide evidence of solid academic aptitude. This should be demonstrated by requiring candidates to have a minimum 3.0 individual or 3.2 cohort average grade point average (GPA) or to have a score in the top half of the entire college-going population on tests of academic ability, such as the SAT, ACT, or GRE.
  • Content Knowledge Requirements:
    • The state should require all aspiring alternate route candidates to pass the subject-matter licensing test to demonstrate the required content knowledge as a prerequisite for admission.
    • The state should waive content-knowledge coursework requirements for alternate route candidates if they can demonstrate mastery by passing the subject-matter licensing test prior to admission.
Rigorous Admissions Requirements
One half of total goal score is earned based on the following:
  • One-half credit: The state will earn the half point if all alternate route candidates are required to have a minimum individual GPA of 3.0 or cohort average GPA of 3.2, or earn a score in the top half of the entire college-going population on a test of academic ability, such as the SAT, ACT, or GRE.
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if all alternate route candidates are required to meet any minimum articulated GPA, or if it norms its proficiency tests to the aspiring teacher population rather than the general college-going population.
Content Knowledge Requirements
One half of total goal score is earned based on the following:
  • One-half credit: The state will earn one-half of a point if all candidates are required to pass the subject-matter licensing test as a prerequisite for admission and if they are exempt from content-knowledge coursework requirements.
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if all candidates are either required to pass the subject-matter licensing test as a prerequisite for admission or if they are exempt from content-knowledge coursework requirements.

Research rationale

Alternate routes for teacher certification represent opportunities for qualified candidates who have strong subject-matter knowledge to enter the profession. Prospective alternate route candidates need the advantage of a strong academic background, allowing them to focus on gaining the professional skills needed for success in the classroom[1]. A teacher's academic caliber correlates with classroom success[2]. Alternate routes that admit candidates with a weak grasp of both subject matter and professional knowledge may put these new teachers in an impossible position, where they are much more likely to experience failure and perpetuate high attrition rates[3].

Academic requirements for admission to alternate routes should set a high bar. Assessing a teacher candidate's college GPA and/or aptitude scores on national exams normed to the entire college-going population can provide useful and reliable measures of academic caliber, provided that the state does not set the floor too low[4]. One study found, "candidates with higher GPAs and those from more selective colleges perform systematically better in the classroom than otherwise identical candidates"[5]. International studies show that differences in teacher cognitive skills are strongly correlated to differences in student performance[6]. More rigorous teacher qualifications improve student achievement, especially among schools serving students from low-income families[7].

In addition to evaluating incoming candidates' academic aptitude, programs should also determine whether applicants have the content knowledge needed to succeed in the classroom after entry through an alternate route[8]. This determination prior to admission, as proven by a passing score on the state's subject-matter licensure test, is important given that many alternative routes do not require candidates to complete additional content coursework during the program. Furthermore, once a candidate is teaching through an alternate route, he or she will need to devote time and effort to hone the professional skills necessary for success in the classroom, such as behavioral management, curriculum delivery, and student assessment. Given the expedited programming for alternate routes, new teachers may feel overwhelmed if they are learning the content they need to teach while simultaneously learning how to teach it.

In some cases, alternative routes require candidates to have a major in the subject they will be licensed to teach. While ensuring content knowledge through an adequate test is essential, rigid coursework requirements can dissuade talented, qualified individuals from pursuing a teaching career. By allowing candidates to demonstrate their rich content knowledge by testing out of coursework requirements, professionals who have a wealth of relevant, subject-specific experience can pass their expertise on to students. With such provisions, states can maintain high standards for potential teachers, while utilizing experts of respective fields, including traditionally hard-to-staff subjects such as differential mathematics and biology. For instance, an engineer who wishes to teach physics should face no content coursework obstacles, provided he or she can prove sufficient knowledge of physics on an adequate subject matter test. A testing exemption would also allow alternate routes to recruit college graduates with strong liberal arts backgrounds to work as elementary teachers, even if their transcripts fail to meet state requirements[9].


[1] Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498382.pdf

[2] There is no shortage of research indicating the states and districts should pay more attention to the academic ability of a teacher applicant. On the importance of academic ability generally, see: Carlisle, J. F., Correnti, R., Phelps, G., & Zeng, J. (2009). Exploration of the contribution of teachers' knowledge about reading to their students' improvement in reading. Reading and Writing, 22(4), 457-486.; National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. US Department of Education.; Kukla-Acevedo, S. (2009). Do teacher characteristics matter? New results on the effects of teacher preparation on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 28(1), 49-57.; Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the world's best-performing schools systems come out on top. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http://mckinseyonsociety.com/downloads/reports/Education/Worlds_School_Systems_Final.pdf; Wayne, A. J., & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 89-122.; Whitehurst, G. J. (2002, March). Scientifically based research on teacher quality: Research on teacher preparation and professional development. White House Conference on Preparing Tomorrow's Teacher.; Monk, D. H. (1994). Subject area preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 13(2), 125-145.; Murnane, R. J. (1983). Understanding the sources of teaching competence: Choices, skills, and the limits of training. Response to Donna Kerr. Teachers College Record, 84(3), 564-69.; Strauss, R. P., & Sawyer, E. A. (1986). Some new evidence on teacher and student competencies. Economics of Education Review, 5(1), 41-48.; Rockoff, J. E., Jacob, B. A., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2011). Can you recognize an effective teacher when you recruit one? Education Finance and Policy, 6(1), 43-74.

[3] Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498382.pdf

[4] For research on the importance of selectivity in teacher preparation programs, see: White, B. R., Presley, J. B., & DeAngelis, K. J. (2008). Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council. Policy Research Report: IERC 2008-1. Retrieved from http://www.siue.edu/ierc/publications/pdf/IERC2008-1.pdf; For evidence on teacher preparation programs' admissions selectivity, see: Auguste, B., Kihn, P., & Miller, M. (2010). Closing the talent gap: Attracting and retaining top-third graduates to careers in teaching. Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http://mckinseyonsociety.com/closing-the-talent-gap/; For evidence on international teacher preparation program standards to further contextualize the aforementioned studies, see: Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. w20727). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3386/w20727; Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2005). Recruiting, selecting and employing teachers. In Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers (pp. 141-167). Paris, France: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264018044-en; Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Scientifically based research on teacher quality: Research on teacher preparation and professional development. White House Conference on Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers, 39-53. Retrieved from http://www.stcloudstate.edu/tpi/initiative/documents/assessment/ScientificallyBasedReserachonTeacherQuality.pdf

[5] Jacob, B. A. (2016). The power of teacher selection to improve education. Evidence Speaks Reports,1(12). Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/teacher-selection.pdf

[6] Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2018). The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance. National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w20727

[7] Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4), 793-818.

[8] For consideration for elementary teachers' need to master content knowledge, see: Goldhaber, D. (2007). Everyone's doing it, but what does teacher testing tell us about teacher effectiveness? Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 765-794.; See also: Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7), 798-812. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509656.pdf

[9] Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498382.pdf