The state should ensure that special education teachers know the science of reading instruction and are fully prepared for the instructional shifts related to literacy associated with college-and career-readiness standards. This goal was consistent between 2015 and 2017.
Scientifically Based Reading Instruction—Tests and Standards: Michigan does not require its special education teachers who teach the elementary grades to pass a rigorous test of reading
instruction. The state also does not require teacher preparation programs to prepare special education candidates in the principles of scientifically based reading instruction. Michigan has neither coursework requirements nor standards related to this critical area.
Informational Texts: Michigan's preparation and licensure requirements for special education teachers address some of the components of the state's college- and career-readiness standards for students. Candidates with an elementary certificate will have passed the Michigan Test for Teacher Certification (MTTC) general elementary content test. Although it addresses expository texts, the assessment does not include the instructional shifts toward building content knowledge and vocabulary through increasingly complex informational texts and careful reading of informational and literary texts associated with the state's college- and career-readiness standards for students.
Literacy Skills: Michigan's reading standards for elementary teachers articulate that all candidates must "promote the integration of language arts in all content areas." Candidates with secondary certification will have passed a single-subject exam. Testing frameworks do not address incorporating literacy skills into other content areas. Michigan's reading standards for secondary teachers require that teachers can "demonstrate understanding of the integrated nature of the English language arts across all content areas." The standards also articulate that teachers must "understand the characteristics of texts and how textual aids enhance comprehension," with further clarification that teachers must "recognize elements of fiction and nonfiction, including imaginative, narrative, and expository texts." However, these standards do not go far enough to ensure that teachers include literacy skills across the core content areas.
Struggling Readers: Regarding struggling readers, the state's elementary standards require elementary teacher candidates to "recognize how differences among learners influence their literacy development and implement programs to address the strengths and needs of individual learners...." Michigan's elementary reading instruction standards also require teachers to be able to:
MTTC Tests www.mttc.nesinc.com Michigan Administrative Code R340.1782 MCL 380.1531(2) Standards in Reading for All Secondary Preparation Programs http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,4615,7-140-6530_5683_6368---,00.html Standards in Reading for All Elementary Preparation Programs http://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,4615,7-140-6530_5683_6368---,00.html
Require all special education teacher candidates who teach the elementary grades to pass a rigorous assessment in the science of reading instruction.
Michigan should require a rigorous reading assessment tool to ensure that its elementary special education teacher candidates are adequately prepared in the science of reading instruction before entering the classroom. It is especially critical that these teacher candidates possess the knowledge and skills related to the science of reading and pass a rigorous test that addresses all five instructional components of scientifically based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Elementary special education teachers who do not possess the minimum knowledge in this area should not be eligible for licensure.
Ensure that teacher preparation programs prepare elementary teaching candidates in the science of reading instruction.
Michigan should require teacher preparation programs in the state to train special education candidates in all five instructional components of scientifically based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Ensure that new special education teachers are prepared to incorporate informational text of increasing complexity into classroom instruction.
Either through testing frameworks or teacher standards, NCTQ encourages Michigan to strengthen its teacher preparation requirements and ensure that all special education candidates—including those teaching under early childhood and secondary licenses—have the ability to adequately incorporate complex informational text into classroom instruction.
Ensure that new special education teachers are prepared to incorporate literacy skills as an integral part of every subject.
To ensure that special education students are capable of accessing varied information about the world around them, Michigan should also—either through testing frameworks or teacher standards—include literacy skills and use text to build content knowledge in history/social studies, science, technical subjects, and the arts.
Michigan recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis. In addition, the state referenced its responses to Goals 2-C: Elementary Reading and 3-C: Adolescent Literacy with regard to the Michigan's development of "a certification test to ensure that all newly certificated elementary teachers have the skills to deliver evidence-based literacy instruction" and preparation standards based on the new test framework. To the extent that these proposed certificate structures and rewritten teacher preparation standards in literacy instruction are adopted for all teachers, special education teachers will receive the same preparation and assessment in the science of reading instruction as general education teachers.
NCTQ looks forward to reviewing the state's progress in future editions of the Yearbook.
4B: Teaching Special Education Reading
Teaching children to read is the most important task teachers at the elementary level undertake. Over the past 60 years, scientists from many fields have worked to determine how people learn to read and why some struggle. This science of reading has led to breakthroughs that can dramatically reduce the number of children destined to become functionally illiterate or barely literate adults. By routinely applying in the classroom the lessons learned from the scientific findings, most reading failure can be avoided. Estimates indicate that the current failure rate of 20 to 30 percent could be reduced to 2 to 10 percent.
Scientific research has shown that there are five essential components of effective reading instruction: explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Many states' policies still do not reflect the strong research consensus in reading instruction that has emerged over the last few decades. Many teacher preparation programs resist teaching scientifically-based reading instruction. Reports by NCTQ on teacher preparation, beginning with What Education Schools Aren't Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren't Learning in 2006 and continuing through the Teacher Prep Review in 2016, have consistently found the overwhelming majority of teacher preparation programs across the country do not train teachers in the science of reading. Whether through standards or coursework requirements, states must direct programs to provide this critical training. But relying on programs alone is insufficient; states must only grant licenses to new special education teachers who can demonstrate they have the knowledge and skills to teach children to read.
Effective early reading instruction is especially important for teachers of special education students. By far, the largest classification of students receiving special education services are those with learning disabilities. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Education, it is estimated that reading disabilities account for about 80 percent of learning disabilities. While early childhood and elementary teachers must know the reading science to prevent reading difficulties, special education teachers, and especially elementary special education teachers, must know how to support students who have already fallen behind and struggle with reading and literacy skills. States should require no less from special education teachers in terms of preparation to teach reading than they require from general education teachers.
College- and career-readiness standards require significant shifts in literacy instruction. College- and career-readiness standards for K-12 students adopted by nearly all states require from teachers a different focus on literacy integrated into all subject areas. The standards demand that teachers are prepared to bring complex text and academic language into regular use, emphasize the use of evidence from informational and literary texts, and build knowledge and vocabulary through content-rich texts. While most states have not ignored teachers' need for training and professional development related to these instructional shifts, states also need to attend to the parallel need to align teacher competencies and requirements for teacher preparation so that new teachers will enter the classroom ready to help students meet the expectations of these standards. For special education teachers, preparation and training must focus on managing these instructional shifts while also helping students who may have serious reading deficiencies.