Retaining Effective Teachers Policy
The state should base licensure advancement on evidence of teacher effectiveness. This goal was consistent between 2015 and 2017.
Evidence of effectiveness: Michigan bases its requirements for licensure advancement on evidence of teacher effectiveness. However, evidence of effectiveness is not required in the state's licensure renewal policy.
Advancing to a professional license: Michigan will require, beginning July 1, 2018, that teachers successfully complete at least three full years of classroom teaching and meet one of the following: rated effective or highly effective for three consecutive years preceding the application, or rated effective or highly effective for three nonconsecutive years with a recommendation from the school's chief administrator.
Renewing a professional license: Michigan requires teachers to renew their licenses every five years by completing six semester hours or 150 hours of continuing education units, or a combination of the two.
Michigan Administrative Code 390.133, -1132, -.1135 Educator Evaluations At-a-Glance http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Educator_Evaluations_At-A-Glance_522133_7.pdf
Require evidence of effectiveness for licensure decisions.
Michigan should require evidence of teacher effectiveness to be a factor in determining whether teachers may renew their licenses.
Michigan was helpful in providing NCTQ with the facts necessary for this analysis.
9A: Licensure Advancement
The reason for probationary licensure should be to determine teacher effectiveness. Most states grant new teachers a probationary license that must later be converted to an advanced or professional license. A probationary period is sound policy as it provides an opportunity to determine whether individuals merit professional licensure. However, very few states require any determination of teacher performance or effectiveness in deciding whether a teacher will advance from the probationary license. Instead, states generally require probationary teachers to fulfill a set of requirements to receive advanced certification. Therefore, ending the probationary period is based on whether a checklist has been completed rather than on teacher performance and effectiveness.
Most state requirements for achieving professional certification have not been shown to affect teacher effectiveness. Unfortunately, not only do most states fail to connect advanced certification to actual evidence of teacher effectiveness, but also the requirements teachers must most often meet are not even related to teacher effectiveness. The most common requirement for professional licensure is completion of additional coursework, often resulting in a master's degree. Requiring teachers to obtain additional training in their teaching area would be meaningful; however, the requirements are usually vague, allowing the teacher to fulfill coursework requirements from long menus that include areas having no connection or use to the teacher in the classroom. The research evidence on requiring a master's degree is quite conclusive: with rare exceptions, these degrees have not been shown to make teachers more effective. This is likely due in no small part to the fact that teachers may not attain master's degrees in their subject areas.
In addition to their dubious value, these requirements may also serve as a disincentive to teacher retention. Talented probationary teachers may be unwilling to invest time and resources in more education coursework. Further, they may well pursue advanced degrees that facilitate leaving teaching.