The state should ensure that secondary teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
Hawaii does not ensure that all secondary teachers are adequately prepared to teach grade-level content.
Hawaii requires that its secondary teacher candidates pass a Praxis II content test to teach any core secondary subjects. Unfortunately, Hawaii permits a significant loophole to this important policy by allowing both general science and general social studies licenses, without requiring subject-matter testing for each subject area within these disciplines (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
To add a field to a secondary license, teachers in Hawaii may choose one of the following: complete a state-approved teacher education program, submit proof of teaching experience and 18 hours of coursework (current rules are being revised to require 30 hours of coursework), or submit proof of teaching experience and a passing score on a Praxis II content test.
Require subject-matter testing for all secondary teacher candidates.
Hawaii wisely requires subject-matter tests for most secondary teachers but should address any loopholes that undermine this policy (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
Require subject-matter testing when adding subject-area endorsements.
Hawaii should require passing scores on subject-specific content tests, regardless of other coursework or degree requirements, for teachers who are licensed in core secondary subjects and wish to add another subject area, or endorsement, to their licenses. While coursework may be generally indicative of background in a particular subject area, only a subject-matter test ensures that teachers know the specific content they will need to teach.
Hawaii acknowledged that it does issue a general license in science and social studies, and noted that when the state reviews its license fields, it will take this issue into consideration.
Further, Hawaii indicated that the coursework requirement to add a field has been adopted, and teachers must now complete 30 hours of coursework in the new field or possess a subject major, along with proof of teaching experience. The Praxis II content test and teaching experience may still be used to add a field, as well as completion of an additional preparation program in the new field.
Research studies have demonstrated the positive impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement. For example, see D. Goldhaber, "Everyone's Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" Journal of Human Resources, vol. XLII no.4 (2007). See also Harris, D., and Sass, T., "Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement." Teacher Quality Research (2007).Evidence can also be found in White, Pressely, DeAngelis "Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois" Illinois Education Research Council (2008); D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Does teacher certification matter? High School Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 22: 129-145. (2000); and D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity." Journal of Human Resources (1998).