The state should ensure that new elementary teachers have sufficient knowledge of the mathematics content taught in elementary grades.
Hawaii relies on national accreditation standards for teacher preparation programs as the basis for articulating its requirements for the mathematics content knowledge of elementary teacher candidates.
The state does not specify any coursework requirements regarding mathematics content. However, Hawaii requires NCATE accreditation, suggesting that the state uses Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) standards for approving its elementary programs. ACEI standards address content in mathematics foundations, but these standards lack the specificity needed to ensure that teacher preparation programs deliver other mathematics content of appropriate breadth and depth to elementary teacher candidates. For example, ACEI algebra standards state that candidates should "know, understand and apply algebraic principles," but these standards make little mention of the actual knowledge that might contribute to such understanding.
Hawaii requires that all new elementary teachers pass a general subject-matter test, the Praxis II. This commercial test lacks a specific mathematics subscore, so one can likely fail the mathematics portion and still pass the test. Further, while this test does cover important elementary school-level content, it barely evaluates candidates' knowledge beyond an elementary school level, does not challenge their understanding of underlying concepts and does not require candidates to apply knowledge in nonroutine, multistep procedures.
http://www.acei.org/standhp.htm www.ets.org/praxis "No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools," NCTQ, June 2008 http://www.nctq.org/p/publications/docs/nctq_ttmath_fullreport.pdf
Require teacher preparation programs to provide mathematics content specifically geared to the needs of elementary teachers.
Although ACEI standards require some knowledge in key areas of mathematics, Hawaii should require teacher preparation programs to provide mathematics content specifically geared to the needs of elementary teachers. This includes specific coursework in foundations, algebra and geometry, with some statistics.
Require teacher candidates to pass a rigorous mathematics assessment.
Hawaii should assess mathematics content with a rigorous assessment tool, such as the test required in Massachusetts, that evaluates mathematics knowledge beyond an elementary school level and challenges candidates' understanding of underlying mathematics concepts. Such a test could also be used to allow candidates to test out of coursework requirements. Teacher candidates who lack minimum mathematics knowledge should not be eligible for licensure.
Hawaii asserted that all elementary education candidates are required to submit passing scores for the Praxis II Elementary Education content test, which includes a section on mathematics. The state also pointed out that the mathematics section includes the following concepts: mathematical processes, number sense and numeration, algebraic concepts, informal geometry and measurement, and data organization and interpretation.
Because the Praxis II elementary content test does not report a subscore for mathematics, the state cannot guarantee requisite knowledge for elementary teachers, who could possibly answer many math questions incorrectly yet still go on to pass the test.