2011 Delivering Well Prepared Teachers Policy
The state should ensure that secondary teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
Virginia requires that its secondary teacher candidates pass a Praxis II content test to teach any core secondary subjects. Unfortunately, Virginia permits a significant loophole to this important policy by allowing a general social studies endorsement, without requiring subject-matter testing for each subject area within the discipline (see Goal 1-H).
Further, to add an additional field to a secondary license, teachers must also pass a Praxis II content test. However, as stated above, Virginia cannot guarantee content knowledge in each specific subject for those secondary teachers who add general social studies endorsements.
Virginia Administrative Code, 8 VAC 20-22-40, -70
Require subject-matter testing for all secondary teacher candidates.
Virginia wisely requires subject-matter tests for most secondary teachers but should address any loopholes that undermine this policy (see Goal 1-H). This applies to the addition of endorsements as well.
Virginia was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis.
Research studies have demonstrated the positive impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement. For example, see D. Goldhaber, "Everyone's Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" Journal of Human Resources, vol. XLII no.4 (2007). See also Harris, D., and Sass, T., "Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement." Teacher Quality Research (2007).Evidence can also be found in White, Pressely, DeAngelis "Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois" Illinois Education Research Council (2008); D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Does teacher certification matter? High School Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 22: 129-145. (2000); and D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity." Journal of Human Resources (1998).