Frequency of Evaluations: Virginia

Identifying Effective Teachers Policy


The state should require annual evaluations of all teachers.

Meets a small part of goal
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2013). Frequency of Evaluations: Virginia results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from:

Analysis of Virginia's policies

Regrettably, Virginia does not ensure that all teachers are evaluated annually.
Nonprobationary teachers must be formally evaluated at least once every three years and more often if deemed necessary by the principal. They must be informally evaluated during each year in which they are not formally evaluated. However, neither the statute nor the framework defines an informal evaluation. 
Any nonprobationary teacher who receives an unsatisfactory formal evaluation and who continues to be employed by the local school board must be formally evaluated the following year. 
Probationary teachers must be evaluated annually. A teacher in the first year of the probationary period must be informally evaluated at least once during the first semester of the school year. 


Recommendations for Virginia

Require annual formal evaluations for all teachers. 
All teachers in Virginia should be evaluated annually. Rather than treated as mere formalities, these teacher evaluations should serve as important tools for rewarding good teachers, helping average teachers improve and holding weak teachers accountable for poor performance.  

Base evaluations on multiple observations. 
To guarantee that annual evaluations are based on an adequate collection of information, Virginia should require multiple observations for all teachers, even those who have nonprobationary status. 

Ensure that new teachers are observed and receive feedback early in the school year. 
It is critical that schools and districts closely monitor the performance of new teachers. Virginia should ensure that its new teachers get the support they need, and that supervisors know early on which new teachers may be struggling or at risk for unacceptable levels of performance. The state's policy regarding teachers in their first year of the probationary period is a step in the right direction, but Virginia should consider early feedback and support for the first few years that a teacher is in the classroom. 

State response to our analysis

Virginia asserted that teachers are evaluated annually because informal evaluations are required during the years they are not formally evaluated. 

Last word

Without annual formal evaluations, the state cannot ensure that teachers will receive adequate feedback to help them improve and be held accountable for ineffective performance. 

Research rationale

Annual evaluations are standard practice in most professional jobs.

Although there has been much progress on this front recently, about half of the states still do not mandate annual evaluations of teachers who have reached permanent or tenured status. The lack of regular evaluations is unique to the teaching profession and does little to advance the notion that teachers are professionals.

Further, teacher evaluations are too often treated as mere formalities rather than as important tools for rewarding good teachers, helping average teachers improve and holding weak teachers accountable for poor performance. State policy should reflect the importance of evaluations so that teachers and principals alike take their consequences seriously.

Evaluations are especially important for new teachers.

Individuals new to a profession frequently have reduced responsibilities coupled with increased oversight. As competencies are demonstrated, new responsibilities are added and supervision decreases. Such is seldom the case for new teachers, who generally have the same classroom responsibilities as veteran teachers, including responsibility for the academic progress of their students, but may receive limited feedback on their performance. In the absence of good metrics for determining who will be an effective teacher before he or she begins to teach, it is critical that schools and districts closely monitor the performance of new teachers.

The state should specifically require that districts observe new teachers early in the school year. This policy would help ensure that new teachers get the support they need early and that supervisors know from the beginning of the school year which new teachers (and which students) may be at risk. Subsequent observations provide important data about the teacher's ability to improve. Data from evaluations from the teacher's early years of teaching can then be used as part of the performance-based evidence to make a decision about tenure.

Frequency of Evaluations: Supporting Research

For the frequency of evaluations in government and private industry, see survey results from Hudson Employment Index's report: "Pay and Performance in America: 2005 Compensation and Benefits Report" Hudson Group (2005).

For research emphasizing the importance of evaluation and observations for new teachers in predicting future success and providing support for teachers see, D. Staiger and J. Rockoff, "Searching for Effective Teachers with Imperfect Information." Journal of Economic Perspectives. Volume 24, No. 3, Summer 2010, pp. 97-118.