Progress on this goal since 2011
- Stayed the same
Do states require districts to evaluate all teachers each year?
Do states require multiple classroom observations?
Yes. State requires all teachers to be observed multiple times. : AL, AR, CT, GA, HI, ID, IN, MS, NC, NJ, NM, NY, RI, TN, WA
Partially. State requires some teachers to be observed multiple times. : AK, AZ, CO, DE, FL, IL, KS, KY, LA, MD, MI, MN, NE, NV, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, VA, WI, WV
No. State does not require multiple observations for any teachers. : CA, DC, IA, MA, ME, MO, MT, ND, NH, SD, TX, UT, VT, WY
Do states require districts to observe new teachers early in the school year?
Yes : AL, DE, HI, ID, KS, KY, MN, MS, ND, NE, NJ, NV, OK, RI, SC, TN, WA, WV
No : AK, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MT, NC, NH, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, SD, TX, UT, VA, VT, WI, WY
ND: New teachers must be evaluated early in the year; observations not explicit.
VA: Teachers in their first year are informally evaluated early in the year.
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Delivering Well Prepared Teachers
- Admission into Teacher Preparation
- Elementary Teacher Preparation
- Elementary Teacher Preparation in Reading Instruction
- Elementary Teacher Preparation in Mathematics
- Middle School Teacher Preparation
- Secondary Teacher Preparation
- Secondary Teacher Preparation in Science
- Special Education Teacher Preparation
- Assessing Professional Knowledge
- Student Teaching
- Teacher Preparation Program Accountability
Expanding the Pool of Teachers
Identifying Effective Teachers
- State Data Systems
- Evaluation of Effectiveness
- Frequency of Evaluations
- Licensure Advancement
- Equitable Distribution
Retaining Effective Teachers
Exiting Ineffective Teachers
Annual evaluations are standard practice in most professional jobs.
Although there has been much progress on this front recently, about half of the states still do not mandate annual evaluations of teachers who have reached permanent or tenured status. The lack of regular evaluations is unique to the teaching profession and does little to advance the notion that teachers are professionals.
Further, teacher evaluations are too often treated as mere formalities rather than as important tools for rewarding good teachers, helping average teachers improve and holding weak teachers accountable for poor performance. State policy should reflect the importance of evaluations so that teachers and principals alike take their consequences seriously.
Evaluations are especially important for new teachers.
Individuals new to a profession frequently have reduced responsibilities coupled with increased oversight. As competencies are demonstrated, new responsibilities are added and supervision decreases. Such is seldom the case for new teachers, who generally have the same classroom responsibilities as veteran teachers, including responsibility for the academic progress of their students, but may receive limited feedback on their performance. In the absence of good metrics for determining who will be an effective teacher before he or she begins to teach, it is critical that schools and districts closely monitor the performance of new teachers.
The state should specifically require that districts observe new teachers early in the school year. This policy would help ensure that new teachers get the support they need early and that supervisors know from the beginning of the school year which new teachers (and which students) may be at risk. Subsequent observations provide important data about the teacher's ability to improve. Data from evaluations from the teacher's early years of teaching can then be used as part of the performance-based evidence to make a decision about tenure.
Frequency of Evaluations: Supporting Research
For the frequency of evaluations in government and private industry, see survey results from Hudson Employment Index's report: "Pay and Performance in America: 2005 Compensation and Benefits Report" Hudson Group (2005).
For research emphasizing the importance of evaluation and observations for new teachers in predicting future success and providing support for teachers see, D. Staiger and J. Rockoff, "Searching for Effective Teachers with Imperfect Information." Journal of Economic Perspectives. Volume 24, No. 3, Summer 2010, pp. 97-118.