Preparation for the Classroom: Texas

Alternate Routes Policy


The state should ensure that its alternate routes provide efficient preparation that is relevant to the immediate needs of new teachers, as well as intensive induction support. The bar for this goal was raised in 2017.

Meets a small part of goal
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2017). Preparation for the Classroom: Texas results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from:

Analysis of Texas's policies

Texas authorizes routes to alternate certification if providers meet the Alternative certification rograms (ACPs) state requirements.

Coursework Requirements: Texas specifies that all teacher preparation programs, including alternate routes, ensure that candidates complete a minimum of 300 clock hours of training and/or coursework. This includes a minimum of 30 hours of field-based experience and 150 hours of coursework and/or training that allows candidates to demonstrate proficiency in a number of competencies, including but not limited to creating well-designed lessons that are appropriate for diverse learners, collecting and analyzing student progress data to inform instruction, ensuring high levels of learning for all students, and communicating clear expectations for student behavior.

There is no limit on the amount of coursework that can be required overall, nor on the amount of coursework a candidate can be required to take while also teaching.

Induction Support: Texas requires that all new teachers receive mentoring support. 

Supervised Practice Teaching Requirements: Texas requires that 15 hours of candidates' field experiences must be designated for candidates to actively engage in instructional or educational activities that include authentic school settings, instruction by content certified teachers, actual students in instructional settings, content or grade-level specific classroom settings, and written reflection and observation. While this requirement ensures that alternate route candidates experience classroom settings, it does not ensure that candidates participate in a supervised practice teaching opportunity.


Recommendations for Texas

Establish coursework guidelines for all alternate route preparation programs.
Texas should not permit alternate route programs to overburden the new teacher by requiring multiple courses to be taken simultaneously during the school year. Setting minimum requirements, without established maximums, does not ensure that the new teacher will be able to complete the program in an appropriate amount of time without being overburdened by coursework. 

Strengthen the induction experience for new teachers.

Although Texas requires all new teachers work with mentors, it is unclear that the mentoring program is structured for new teacher success.  The state should strengthen its induction experience by providing for: intensive mentoring with full classroom support in the first few weeks or months of school, a reduced teaching load, and release time to allow new teachers to observe experienced teachers during each school day.

Require opportunities to practice teach.
While Texas should be commended for requiring that candidates actively engage in instructional activities in authentic school settings prior to entering the classroom, it does not ensure that candidates participate in a supervised practice teaching opportunity.  The state should ensure that all candidates are provided with a supervised practice teaching opportunity prior to their placement in the classroom.

State response to our analysis

Texas was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis.

The state asserted that alternate route candidates are provided with the option to take part in a 14-week clinical supervised practice teaching opportunity; however, a candidate can opt into a year-long internship under the supervision of the preparation program and a mentor teacher in lieu of the clinical teaching experience.

Updated: December 2017

How we graded

5B: Preparation for the Classroom 

  • Practice Teaching: The state should require a supervised practice-teaching experience.
  • Induction: The state should require that all new teachers receive intensive induction support.
  • Manageable Coursework: The state should ensure that the amount of coursework it either requires or allows is manageable for a novice teacher. Anything exceeding 12 credit hours may be counterproductive, placing too great a burden on the teacher. This calculation is premised on no more than six credit hours in the summer, three credit hours in the spring, and three credit hours in the fall.
  • Targeted Coursework: The state should ensure that all coursework requirements are targeted to the immediate needs of the new teacher (e.g., seminars with other grade-level teachers, classroom management techniques, training in a particular curriculum, reading instruction).
Preparation for the Classroom
The total goal score is earned based on the following:

  • Full credit: The state will earn the full point if all four elements are required for all alternate route programs.
  • Three-quarters credit: The state will earn three-quarters of a point if three elements are required for all alternate route programs.
  • One-half credit: The state will earn one-half of a point if two elements are required for at least some of the state's alternate route programs.
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if one element is required for at least one of the state's alternate route programs.

Research rationale

Alternate route programs must provide practical, meaningful preparation that is sensitive to a new teacher's workload and stress level. Too many states have policies requiring alternate route programs to "backload" large amounts of traditional education coursework, thereby preventing the emergence of real alternatives to traditional preparation. This issue is especially important given the large proportion of alternate route teachers who complete this coursework while teaching. Alternate route teachers often have to deal with the stresses of beginning to teach while also completing required coursework in the evenings and on weekends.[1] States need to be careful to require participants only to meet standards or complete coursework that is practical and immediately helpful to a new teacher.[2] That is, while advanced pedagogy coursework may be meaningful for veteran teachers, alternate route coursework should build on more fundamental teaching competencies such as classroom management techniques, reading instruction, or curriculum delivery.

Most new teachers—regardless of their preparation—find themselves overwhelmed by taking on their own classrooms. This is especially true for alternate route teachers, who may have had considerably less classroom exposure or pedagogy training than traditionally prepared teachers.[3] States must ensure that alternate route programs do not leave new teachers to "sink or swim" on their own when they begin teaching. It is critical that all alternate route programs provide at least a brief student teaching or other supervised practice experience for candidates before they enter the classroom, as well as ongoing induction support during those first critical months as a new teacher.[4]

[1] Constantine, J., Player, D., Silva, T., Hallgren, K., Grider, M., & Deke, J. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4043. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from
[2] Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from
[3] Greenberg, J., Walsh, K., & McKee, A. (2014). Teacher Prep Review: A review of the nation's teacher preparation programs. Retrieved from
[4] For a further review of the research on new teacher induction, see: Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention. Retrieved from