Leadership Opportunities: South Dakota

2019 Retaining Effective Teachers Policy

Goal

The state should support teachers to take on leadership opportunities that allow them to continue teaching.

Nearly meets
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2019). Leadership Opportunities: South Dakota results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/SD-Leadership-Opportunities-97

Analysis of South Dakota's policies

State Support for Teacher Leadership: South Dakota offers teachers the opportunity to be a part of its Emerging Classroom Leaders Pool. 

Selection criteria: South Dakota requires teachers to demonstrate all of the following: exceptional educational talent as evidenced by effective instructional practices and student learning results in the classroom and school; exemplary educational accomplishments beyond the classroom that provide models of excellence for the profession; contributions to education that are largely unheralded yet worthy of the spotlight; strong long-range potential for professional and policy leadership; and engaging and inspiring presence that motivates and impacts students, colleagues, and the community.

Incentives and supports: South Dakota incentivizes teachers in the pool by considering them for membership on advisory boards and task forces, and as candidates for special recognition programs. These teachers represent their communities and the state, and may ultimately receive prestigious recognition. 

Citation

Recommendations for South Dakota

Offer additional incentives or supports to teachers who assume leadership roles.
Although South Dakota is on the right track in offering various forms of recognition and opportunities to its teacher leaders, the state is encouraged to strengthen its policy and offer—or encourage districts to offer—either financial incentives or more substantive nonmonetary supports. South Dakota should also ensure that principals provide time and space for the tasks of both teacher of record and teacher leadership roles, which may be accomplished, for example, through a reduction of class loads.

State response to our analysis

This analysis was updated subsequent to the state's review.
South Dakota added that the state is also doing the following:

  • Supports teachers to pursue National Board Certification (cohort of teachers, stipend, and fee reimbursement)
  • SDMath/SDSci - cohort of teacher leaders in math and science fields from across the state 
  • Leading Innovation and Change through Systems Thinking and Equity - training for school teams, which includes superintendent, principals, and teacher leaders
  • Math Virtual Coaching - veteran math teachers are trained to be a virtual coach to newer math teachers across the state
  • Mentoring Program - mentor teachers are trained and paid to support new teachers for two years
  • Teacher of the Year - recognizes and honors the tremendous contributions of outstanding classroom teachers; five region teachers are sent to the National State Teacher of the Year Leadership Conference annually

Updated: August 2019

How we graded

9C: Leadership Opportunities

  • Policy or Initiative: The state should support, through a specific and articulated policy or initiative, opportunities for teachers to assume leadership roles and/or advanced career positions that allow them to continue teaching.
  • Strategic Selection: The state should require that teachers are strategically selected for leadership roles based on specific criteria, including content knowledge and classroom effectiveness.
  • Incentives or Supports: The state should offer, or encourage districts to offer meaningful incentives such as: compensation (e.g., financial incentives) or nonmonetary supports (e.g., reduced class loads) for teachers who assume leadership roles.
Policy or Initiative
One-quarter of the total goal score is earned based on the following:
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if there is a specific and articulated policy or initiative for teachers to assume leadership roles or advanced career positions that allow them to continue teaching in the classroom for at least some of their work time.
Strategic Selection
One-quarter of the total goal score is earned based on the following:

  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if it requires teachers to be strategically selected for leadership roles based on specific criteria, including content knowledge and effectiveness.
Incentives or Supports
Up to one-half of the total goal score is earned based on the following:

  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if it offers or encourages monetary incentives (e.g., bonuses, extra steps on the salary schedule) for teachers who assume leadership roles.
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if it offers or encourages non-monetary supports that help provide teacher leaders with the necessary time to engage in teacher leadership activities (e.g., additional prep time or reduced class loads) or non-monetary incentives that help increase teacher leaders efficacy and impact (e.g., attending conferences or being invited to serve on teacher panels/advisory boards/etc.).

Research rationale

Research from the past four decades widely supports leadership roles for teachers.[1] Teachers aspire to engage in leadership and professional growth opportunities,[2] and desire more participation in decisions about instruction.[3] Research suggests teacher leaders should be involved in policy and decision-making at some level.[4]

Research has not found a relationship between teacher leadership and student achievement;[5] however, the presence of teacher leadership opportunities in schools has benefits for individual teacher leaders, as well as the school-wide teacher community. Teacher leaders feel more confident, empowered, and professionally satisfied;[6] they also feel that leadership roles allowed them to grow professionally.[7] Teachers in schools with teacher leadership opportunities report that such opportunities contribute to greater teacher empowerment, professional community, and collective responsibility.[8] For their school community, teachers in leadership roles have the capacity to increase teacher collaboration, spread best practices, encourage teacher professional learning, and focus on content-specific issues.[9] Teacher leaders support professional learning communities by conducting formal professional development or assisting other teachers in classrooms.[10] By concurrently serving as teachers, teacher leaders are likely to be more effective in both roles.[11]

Teacher leaders selected for these roles should bring substantial teaching experience and knowledge of the curriculum,[12] as well as effective instruction.[13] Insofar as strong teacher leadership systems should ensure that teacher leaders also remain in the classroom as teachers, principals should provide time and space for the tasks of both teacher of record and teacher leadership roles, such as reducing class loads.


[1] Werner, J. A., & Campbell, T. (2017). The theoretical and empirical basis of teacher leadership: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 134-171.; York-Barr, J., & Duke, K. (2004). What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 255-316.
[2] Behrstock, E., & Clifford, M. (2009). Leading Gen Y teachers: Emerging strategies for school leaders (TQ Research & Policy Brief). National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.; Coggshall, J. G., Behrstock-Sherratt, E., & Drill, K. (2011). Workplaces that support high-performing teaching and learning: Insights from Generation Y teachers. American Institutes for Research.; Conley, S. (1991). Review of research on teacher participation in school decision-making. In G. Grant (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 17, pp. 225-265). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.; Markow, D., & Pieters, A. (2012). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: Teachers, parents and the economy. New York, NY: MetLife.
[3] Conley, S. (1991). Review of research on teacher participation in school decision-making. In G. Grant (Ed.), Review of research in education (Vol. 17, pp. 225-265). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
[4] Can, N. (2009). The leadership behaviours of teachers in primary schools in Turkey. Education, 129(3), 436-448.; Carpenter, B. D., & Sherretz, C. E. (2012). Professional development school partnerships: An instrument for teacher leadership. School-University Partnerships, 5(1), 89-101.; Durias, R. F. (2010). Teacher leaders of color: The impact of professional development on their leadership. University of California, Santa Barbara.; Gonzales, L. D., & Behar-Horenstein, L. S. (2004). Sustaining teacher leadership in enabling to inchoate cultures. Journal of School Leadership, 14(2), 128-152.
[5] Lieberman, A., Saxl, E. R., & Miles, M. B. (1988). Teacher leadership: Ideology and practice. In A. Lieberman (Ed.), Building a professional culture in schools (pp. 148-166). New York: Teachers College Press.; York-Barr, J., & Duke, K. (2004). What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 255-316.
[6] Beachum, F., & Dentith, A. M. (2004). Teacher leaders creating cultures of school renewal and transformation. In The Educational Forum (Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 276-286). Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis Group.
[7] Hofstein, A., Carmeli, M., & Shore, R. (2004). The professional development of high school chemistry coordinators. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15(1), 3-24.; Singh, A., Yager, S. O., Yutakom, N., Yager, R. E., & Ali, M. M. (2012). Constructivist teaching practices used by five teacher leaders for the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 7(2), 197-216.
[8] Beachum, F., & Dentith, A. M. (2004). Teacher leaders creating cultures of school renewal and transformation. In The educational forum (Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 276-286). Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis Group.; Marks, H. M., & Louis, K. S. (1997). Does teacher empowerment affect the classroom? The implications of teacher empowerment for instructional practice and student academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 245-275.; Paulu, N., & Winters, K. (1998). Teachers leading the way: Voices from the National Teacher Forum. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.; Stone, M., Horejs, J., & Lomas, A. (1997). Commonalities and differences in teacher leadership at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Action in Teacher Education, 19(3), 49-64.
[9] Curtis, R. (2013). Finding a new way: Leveraging teacher leadership to meet unprecedented demands. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.; Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2003). Teacher leadership—Improvement through empowerment? An overview of the literature. Educational Management & Administration, 31(4), 437-448.; Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2006). Teacher led school improvement: Teacher leadership in the UK. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 961-972.
[10] Can, N. (2009). The leadership behaviours of teachers in primary schools in Turkey. Education, 129(3), 436-448.; Durias, R. F. (2010). Teacher leaders of color: The impact of professional development on their leadership. University of California, Santa Barbara.; Gonzales, L. D., & Behar-Horenstein, L. S. (2004). Sustaining teacher leadership in enabling to inchoate cultures. Journal of School Leadership, 14(2), 128-152.; Gordin, L. (2010). Conceptualization and support of the role of teachers serving as team leaders in a professional learning community. Azusa, CA: Azusa Pacific University.; Margolis, J. (2012). Hybrid teacher leaders and the new professional development ecology. Professional Development in Education, 38(2), 291-315.; Margolis J., & Doring A. (2012). The fundamental dilemma of teacher leader-facilitated professional development: Do as I (kind of) say, not as I (sort of) do. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48, 859-882.; Margolis J., & Huggins K. S. (2012). Distributed but undefined: New teacher leader roles to change schools. Journal of School Leadership, 22, 953-981.; Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2006). Teacher led school improvement: Teacher leadership in the UK. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 961-972.; Vernon-Dotson, L. J. (2008). Promoting inclusive education through teacher leadership teams: A school reform initiative. Journal of School Leadership, 18(3), 344-373.; Vernon-Dotson, L. J., & Floyd, L. O. (2012). Building leadership capacity via school partnerships and teacher teams. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 85(1), 38-49.
[11] Curtis, R. (2013). Finding a new way: Leveraging teacher leadership to meet unprecedented demands. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.; Gonzales, L. D., & Behar-Horenstein, L. S. (2004). Sustaining teacher leadership in enabling to inchoate cultures. Journal of School Leadership, 14(2), 128-152.; Mangin M. M., & Stoelinga S. R. (2008). Teacher leadership: What it is and why it matters. In Mangin M. M., & Stoelinga S. R. (Eds.), Effective teacher leadership: Using research to inform and reform (pp. 1-9). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.; Margolis, J. (2012). Hybrid teacher leaders and the new professional development ecology. Professional Development in Education, 38(2), 291-315.; Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2003). Teacher leadership—Improvement through empowerment? An overview of the literature. Educational Management & Administration, 31(4), 437-448.; Muijs, D., & Harris, A. (2006). Teacher led school improvement: Teacher leadership in the UK. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 961-972.; Vernon-Dotson, L. J. (2008). Promoting inclusive education through teacher leadership teams: A school reform initiative. Journal of School Leadership, 18(3), 344-373.
[12] Lieberman, A., Saxl, E. R., & Miles, M. B. (1988). Teacher leadership: Ideology and practice. In A. Lieberman (Ed.), Building a professional culture in schools (pp. 148-166). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
[13] Mangin M. M., & Stoelinga S. R. (2008). Teacher leadership: What it is and why it matters. In Mangin M. M., & Stoelinga S. R. (Eds.), Effective teacher leadership: Using research to inform and reform (pp. 1-9). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.