Alternate Routes Policy
The state should ensure that its alternate routes provide efficient preparation that is relevant to the immediate needs of new teachers through targeted and manageable coursework, as well as supervised practice teaching opportunities and intensive induction support that includes mentorship. This goal has been revised since 2017.
South Carolina offers several alternate certification routes: American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE), Greenville Alternate Teacher Education Program (GATE), TeachCharleston, the Program of Alternative Certification for Educators (PACE), Teach For America (TFA), and Teachers of Tomorrow (ToT). In addition, South Carolina also offers Career and Technology Education (CTE) and Montessori Initial Certification aimed at recruiting educators into extremely specialized subjects. As a result, these two programs are not analyzed below.
Practice Teaching: South Carolina's PACE, GATE, and ABCTE programs do not require their candidates to participate in a supervised practice teaching opportunity. TFA, however, does require this of its candidates as part of the program's preparation.
Induction Support: All beginning teachers in South Carolina must participate in a mentor-supported induction program and be provided with support, assistance, and formative feedback.
South Carolina's PACE program requires that its candidates participate in an induction program that includes mentoring, the successful completion of the formal evaluation process, and a successful formal or informal evaluation during the final year of program participation.
GATE candidates must receive on-site, intensive coaching and mentoring from a school support team.
TFA candidates receive classroom support throughout the course of the program. Those who are employed on or before the 28th student attendance day are employed under an induction contract, and induction and mentoring requirements apply to TFA teachers during their first year of employment. In addition, South Carolina requires TFA candidates to participate in all district directed professional development.
ABCTE candidates must complete the induction and summative evaluation requirements as directed by their employing district or school.
Manageable Coursework: South Carolina limits alternate-route certifications to three years.
TFA candidates must complete an intensive five-week summer-training program, but the program does not list specific coursework requirements.
South Carolina requires PACE and TFA candidates to complete nine semester hours of graduate-level coursework from a list of state-approved courses, and these courses are to be selected based on the individual candidate's experience, knowledge, and skills.
The ABCTE program does not outline its coursework requirements.
Targeted Coursework: Coursework or professional learning requirements for program completion are determined by the specific pathway. All candidates must successfully complete the state's summative evaluation requirements and earn a qualifying score on a pedagogy assessment approved by the State Board in order to advance to a standard Professional certificate.
South Carolina's PACE program must include a ten-day pre-service institute that focuses on the needs of new teachers, such as managing the classroom, handling behavior issues, preparing lesson plans, supporting diverse learners, and teaching strategies. Candidates must also attend additional training institutes and professional development meetings throughout the school year, in addition to completing three courses from a list of core courses approved by the state. These courses must be selected based on the individual candidate's experience, knowledge, and skills. Only one of these courses can be a Professional Development course, and all courses must be completed for college credit with an assigned letter grade of a B or better.
GATE candidates must participate in summer institutes and school-year seminars taught by district personnel and expert educators, but the state does not outline either the quantity or nature of the program's coursework.
The ABCTE program does not outline its coursework requirements.
South Carolina Department of Education, Alternative Certification Programs: http://ed.sc.gov/educators/teaching-in-south-carolina/alternative-certification/alternative-certification-programs/ S.C. State Board PACE Guidelines: http://ed.sc.gov/educators/teaching-in-south-carolina/alternative-certification/alternative-certification-forms/pace-guidelines/ South Carolina Department of Education, PACE participants: http://ed.sc.gov/educators/teaching-in-south-carolina/alternative-certification/alternative-certification-programs/program-of-alternative-certification-for-educators/pace-participants/ State Board of Education, 43-51 (IV), 43-53(I)(C) Greenville County Schools, Greenville Alternative Teacher Education Program: https://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/Employment/main.asp?titleid=gate; https://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/Employment/main.asp?titleid=gate_about S.C. State Board Guidelines for the South Carolina Teach for America Program: http://ed.sc.gov/educators/teaching-in-south-carolina/alternative-certification/alternative-certification-programs/teach-for-america-tfa/state-board-approved-guidelines-for-tfa/ TFA training and support: https://www.teachforamerica.org/join-tfa/leading-classroom/training-support TFA Summer Training: https://www.teachforamerica.org/join-tfa/leading-classroom/training-support/summer-training-experience South Carolina Department of Education, American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence: http://ed.sc.gov/educators/teaching-in-south-carolina/alternative-certification/alternative-certification-programs/american-board/ American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence: https://www.americanboard.org/south-carolina/
Require practice teaching opportunities.
South Carolina should require that all alternate routes establish practice teaching opportunities for novice teachers as part of their preparation prior to becoming teachers of record. This corresponds directly to the student teaching experience for traditionally prepared educators and better prepares candidates to be successful in the classroom.
Limit coursework for new teachers.
South Carolina should ensure that all novice alternate route teachers have manageable coursework while teaching. Given the demands on a novice teacher's time, course requirements should not exceed three credit hours in the spring and fall and six credit hours in the summer.
Target coursework for all new teachers.
South Carolina should ensure that all novice alternate route teachers' coursework is relevant to the immediate needs of new teachers. Appropriate coursework should include grade-level or subject-level seminars, methodology in the content area, classroom management, assessment and instruction in the science of reading.
South Carolina was helpful in providing NCTQ with the facts necessary for this analysis.
Teachers who enter the profession through alternate routes report lower levels of self-efficacy compared to beginning teachers who enter through traditional teacher preparation programs. Alternate route teachers are likely to be especially concerned about their ability to effectively deliver instruction, manage the classroom, and plan lessons. Most new teachers—regardless of their preparation—find themselves overwhelmed by the responsibilities of the job. This is especially true for alternate route teachers, who may have had considerably less classroom exposure than traditionally prepared teachers. States must ensure that alternate routes do not leave new teachers to "sink or swim" on their own when they begin teaching.
It is critical that all alternate routes provide at least a brief student teaching or other supervised practice experience for candidates before they enter their own classrooms. Field work and exposure to real classrooms offers a scaffolded opportunity for prospective new teachers to gain practical experience. Across areas of instruction, student teachers feel significantly better prepared after completing student teaching. Access to highly-effective rated cooperating teachers in student teaching experiences results in pronounced positive outcomes for students of aspiring teachers.
Additionally, all new teachers need comprehensive and ongoing professional development even after they become "teachers of record." Effective induction programs go beyond the basics of new teacher orientation and may include comprehensive supports, such as mentorship, common planning time with other teachers, reduced teaching course loads, and assistance from a classroom aide. Access to a mentor teacher with subject-area expertise and dedicated common collaboration time with other teachers of the same subject area are cited as the two most effective factors in reducing first-year turnover and improving job satisfaction and commitment. Robust and consistent mentorship not only helps new teachers feel supported, but also improves retention and student outcomes. Importantly, students' academic performance increases when they're taught by teachers who are highly engaged in induction programs with mentorship, as compared to students of teachers who are not engaged in such programs. Induction programs should require new teachers, especially those who enter the profession through alternate routes with limited preparation, to collaborate with experienced and effective mentors who can guide them through what can often be a challenging transition into a new career.
Alternate routes must provide practical and meaningful coursework that is sensitive to a new teacher's workload and stress level. State policies that require alternate route programs to "backload" large amounts of traditional education coursework prevent the emergence of real alternatives to traditional preparation. This issue is especially important given the large proportion of alternate route teachers who complete required coursework in the evenings and on weekends while also teaching. States need to be careful to require participants only to meet standards or complete coursework that is practical and immediately helpful to a new teacher. That is, while advanced pedagogy coursework may be meaningful for veteran teachers, alternate route coursework should build on more fundamental professional competencies such as classroom management techniques, instructional methods, or curriculum delivery. Alternate route participants' primary concern as novice teachers is managing the classroom, which should be a focus in required coursework. Furthermore, the curriculum for teacher training programs must be aligned to what beginner teachers experience in the classroom. Clear connections between theory and best teaching practices enable coursework to be directly translated into the classroom.
 Forsbach-Rothman, T., Margolin, M., & Bloom, D. (2007). Student Teachers and Alternate Route Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Views of Teacher Preparation. Journal of the National Association for Alternative Certification,2(1), 29-41. Retrieved from http://jnaac.com/index.php/JNAAC/article/view/45/33
 Greenberg, J., Walsh, K., & McKee, A. (2014). Teacher Prep Review: A review of the nation's teacher preparation programs.Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Prep_Review_2014_Report
 Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Strengthening Clinical Preparation: The Holy Grail of Teacher Education. Peabody Journal of Education,89(4), 547-561. doi:https://doi-org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/10.1080/0161956X.2014.939009
 Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., & Theobald, R. (2019). Leveraging the student-teaching experience to train tomorrow's great teachers. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2019/05/20/leveraging-the-student-teaching-experience-to-train-tomorrows-great-teachers/.
 For a further review of the research on new teacher induction, see: Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention. Retrieved from http://www.newteacher.com/pdf/ResearchontheImpactofInduction.pdf
 Wong, H. K. (2004). Induction Programs That Keep New Teachers Teaching and Improving. NASSP Bulletin, 88(638), 41-58. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f71d/e558a5e10724e31ba26d477057ef0272110b.pdf
 Ingersoll, R. M. (2012, May 16). Beginning Teacher Induction: What the Data Tell us. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/05/16/kappan_ingersoll.h31.html
 Brody, S. (2017, November). A bright spot for PD—new teacher induction that works [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/blog/A-bright-spot-for-PDnew-teacher-induction-that-works
 There is no shortage of research that indicates the students of new teachers who receive strong mentorship have higher scores than those of new teachers with minimal to no or weak mentorship. See: Best Practices in Teacher and Administrator Induction Programs. (2016). California County Superintendents Educational Services Association. Retrieved from http://ccsesa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Best-Practices-in-Teacher-and-Administrator-Induction-Programs.pdf
 Constantine, J., Player, D., Silva, T., Hallgren, K., Grider, M., & Deke, J. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4043. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504313.pdf
 Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498382.pdf
 O'Connora, E. A., Malow, M. S., & Bisland, B. M. (2011). Mentorship and instruction received during training: Views of alternatively certified teachers. Educational Review,63(2), 219-232. doi:10.1080/00131911.2010.537312