The state should close loopholes that allow teachers who have not met licensure requirements to continue teaching.
Pennsylvania allows individuals who have not met the state's minimum standards for licensure to teach on emergency permits that expire the last day of summer school in the year they were issued. The state will issue an emergency permit to individuals who hold a bachelor's degree if no qualified teachers can be found for the position. The permit may be renewed if the applicant has completed nine semester hours in a state-approved teacher preparation program. An emergency permit may be issued up to an additional two years to enable the individual to complete and pass all testing requirements for full state certification.
Ensure that all teachers pass required subject-matter licensing tests before they enter the classroom.
All students are entitled to teachers who know the subject matter they are teaching. Permitting individuals who have not yet passed state licensing tests to teach neglects the needs of students, instead extending personal consideration to adults who may not be able to meet minimal state standards. Pennsylvania should ensure that all teachers pass licensing tests—an important minimum benchmark for entering the profession—before entering the classroom.
Limit exceptions to one year.
There might be limited and exceptional circumstances under which conditional or emergency licenses need to be granted. In these instances, it is reasonable for a state to give teachers up to one year to pass required licensing tests. Pennsylvania's current policy puts students at risk by allowing teachers to teach on an emergency permits for up to three years without passing required licensing tests.
Pennsylvania recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
Research has shown that "the difference in student performance in a single academic year from having a good as opposed to a bad teacher can be more than one full year of standardized achievement." See E. Hanushek, "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality," The Journal of Political Economy 100 No. 1 (1992): 84-117. Hanushek has also found that highly effective teachers can improve future student earnings by more than $400,000, assuming a class of 20. "The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 16606 (2010).