Teacher and Principal Evaluation Policy
The state should require objective measures of student growth to be included in a teacher's evaluation score.
Impact of Student Growth: Ohio requires objective measures of student growth only for teachers of tested grades and subjects. According to recently passed legislation, as of the 2020-2021 school year, evaluation systems must use "at least two measures of high-quality student data to provide evidence of student learning attributable to the teacher being evaluated." For teachers of tested grades and subjects, high-quality student data must include the "value-added progress dimension," which is defined as a measure of academic gain for a student or group of students over a specific period of time that is calculated by applying a statistical methodology to individual student achievement data derived from the state achievement assessments. The use of student learning objectives is explicitly prohibited.
State's Role in Evaluation System: Ohio districts develop evaluation systems that are consistent with the state's framework.
Ohio Revised Code 3319.112 SB 216 (2018)
Require all teachers to be evaluated using objective measures of student growth.
Although Ohio requires teachers of tested grades and subjects to be evaluated using its value-added program dimension, the state's policy falls short by not ensuring that all teacher evaluations incorporate the use of objective measures of student growth. Ohio should require that objective evidence of student growth (e.g., student learning objectives) be included in evaluation ratings for all teachers.
Ohio recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
7A: Measures of Student Growth
Many factors should be considered in formally evaluating a teacher; however, nothing is more important than effectiveness in the classroom. Value-added models are an important tool for measuring student achievement and school effectiveness. These models have the ability to measure individual students' learning gains, controlling for students' previous knowledge and background characteristics. While some research suggests value-added models are subject to bias and statistical limitations, rich data and strong controls can eliminate error and bias. In the area of teacher quality, examining student growth offers a fairer and potentially more meaningful way to evaluate a teacher's effectiveness than other methods schools use.
Unfortunately, districts have used many evaluation instruments, including some mandated by states, which are structured so that teachers can earn a satisfactory rating without any evidence that they are sufficiently advancing student learning in the classroom. Teacher evaluation instruments should include factors that combine both human judgment and objective measures of student learning.