The state should require undergraduate teacher preparation programs to admit only candidates with good academic records.
Kentucky does not require all aspiring teachers to pass a test of academic proficiency as a criterion for admission to teacher preparation programs or any time thereafter. Rather, the state has candidate admission standards only for programs identified as low performing. Candidates applying to identified programs must have a minimum GPA of 2.5 and provide evidence of academic competency by means of the following criteria: a minimum composite score of 21 on the ACT, a minimum composite score of a 1,470 on the SAT, a minimum score on the GRE established by the teacher preparation program, or a state-determined passing score on the Praxis I basic skills test.
Further, although the state requires that programs develop a plan of selection that includes "tests to measure general academic proficiency," passing a basic skills test is just one of the options, and none of the options ensures that candidates are in the top half of the college-going population.
Require all teacher candidates, not just those teaching in low-performing schools, to pass a test of academic proficiency that assesses reading, writing and mathematics skills as a criterion for admission to teacher preparation programs.
Teacher preparation programs that do not screen candidates end up investing considerable resources in individuals who may not be able to successfully complete the program and pass licensing tests. Candidates needing additional support should complete remediation prior to program entry, avoiding the possibility of an unsuccessful investment of significant public tax dollars.
Require preparation programs to use a common test normed to the general college-bound population.
The basic skills tests in use in most states largely assess middle school-level skills. To improve the selectivity of teacher candidates—a common characteristic in countries whose students consistently outperform ours in international comparisons—Kentucky should require an assessment that demonstrates that candidates are academically competitive with all peers, regardless of their intended profession. Requiring a common test normed to the general college population would allow for the selection of applicants in the top half of their class, as well as facilitate program comparison.
Exempt candidates with comparable SAT or ACT scores.
Kentucky should waive the basic skills test requirement for candidates whose SAT or ACT scores demonstrate that they are in the top half of their class.
Kentucky recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis. The state added that it is working to ensure the recruitment of the best prepared educator candidates and to make changes that would ensure the admission of only those with good academic records. Pending regulatory changes will require program applicants to present a cumulative GPA of 2.75 on a 4.0 scale or a GPA of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale for the last 36 hours of credit completed, including both undergraduate and graduate coursework.
Further, applicants will be required to demonstrate appropriate pre-professional skills in math, reading and writing. The test is not normed to the entire population of students who take college admissions tests but rather to college students who apply to educator preparation programs. Thus, the comparison group will reflect a selective norming sample. Kentucky also noted that it will not exempt candidates from this testing based on ACT or SAT scores, based on the advice of counsel.
Finally, the pending regulatory changes will also do the following: require that all candidates demonstrate an overall disposition essential to being an effective teacher in the areas of critical thinking, communication, creativity and collaboration prior to admission to a teacher preparation program, and stipulate that all teacher preparation programs submit an annual report. The effective date for these pending changes is September 1, 2012.
For information on basic skills and certification test pass rates across the states, see Secretary's Seventh Annual Report on Teacher Quality 2010 at:
For evidence that basic skills tests for teachers assess no more than middle school level skills, see "Not Good Enough: A Content Analysis of Teacher Licensing Examinations." Thinking K-16, The Education Trust (Spring 1999).
For evidence of the predictive power of college selectivity and SAT scores see C, Clotfelter, H. Ladd, and J. Vigdor, "Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One?" National Bureau of Economic Research (2008). The authors also found college selectivity to have a positive impact on student achievement in North Carolina in "How and Why Do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student Achievement?" Calder Institute (2007).
For a discussion of teacher preparation program admissions policies in other countries, see OECD study Teacher Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Also see Barber, M. and Mourshed, M., "How the World's Performing School System's Come out on Top." McKinsey & Company (2007).
For research supporting greater selectivity for teacher preparation programs see, Donald Boyd et al., "The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and Implications for Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools," National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 14021, June 2008; Drew Gitomer, "Teacher Quality in a Changing Policy Landscape: Improvements in the Teacher Pool," Educational Testing Service, 2007; D. Goldhaber et al., NBPTS certification: Who applies and what factors are associated with success? Center for Reinventing Public Education working paper, 2004; A.J. Wayne and P. Youngs, "Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review." Review of Educational Research, 2003; Grover Whitehurst, "Scientifically based research on teacher quality: Research on teacher preparation and professional development," Paper presented at the White House Conference on Preparing Teachers, 2002; J. Kain and K. Singleton, "Equality of Education Revisited" New England Economic Review, May-June 1996; R. Ferguson and H. Ladd "How and Why Money Matters: An Analysis of Alabama Schools," In H. Ladd (ed). Holding Schools Accountable. Brookings Institution, 1996; R. Greenwald et al. "The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement" Review of Educational Research, 1996; R. Ehrenberg and D. Brewer, "Do School and Teacher Characteristics Matter? Evidence From High School and Beyond" Economics of Education Review, 1994; Ron Ferguson, "Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why money matters," Harvard Journal on Legislation, 1991; R. Strauss and E. Sawyer, "Some New Evidence on Teacher and Student Competencies" Economics of Education Review, 1986; M. McLaughlin and D. Marsh, "Staff development and school change," Teachers College Record, 1978; D. Winkler, "Educational Achievement and School Peer Composition," Journal of Human Resources, 1975; A. Summers and B. Wolfe, "Do schools make a difference?" American Economic Review, 1977; Eric Hanushek, "Teacher characteristics and gains in student achievement: Estimation using micro-data," American Economic Review, 1971.