Measures of Student Growth: Indiana

2019 Teacher and Principal Evaluation Policy

Goal

The state should require objective measures of student growth to be included in a teacher's evaluation score.

Meets
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2019). Measures of Student Growth: Indiana results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/IN-Measures-of-Student-Growth-95

Analysis of Indiana's policies

Impact of Student Growth: Indiana requires objective measures of student achievement and growth to "significantly inform"  teacher evaluations. Measures must include state assessment results for teachers of subjects measured by such assessments, or methods for assessing student growth for teachers of subjects not measured by state assessments. Where a mandatory state assessment exists, districts must use it as a measure of student learning. If that state assessment provides individual growth data, it must be used as that teacher's primary measure of student learning.

Indiana requires that teachers meet student growth goals or be rated at least effective for the student growth portion of their evaluation to earn an overall rating of effective. Specifically, Indiana requires its districts' teacher evaluation systems to include a provision that a teacher who negatively affects student achievement and growth cannot earn a rating of highly effective or effective.

State's Role in Evaluation System: Indiana districts develop evaluation systems based on criteria set forth by the state.

Citation

Recommendations for Indiana

Due to Indiana's strong policies in this area, no recommendations are provided.

State response to our analysis

Indiana was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis.  Indiana also noted that the state's teacher evaluation structure presents an exemplar model that helps ensure evaluation ratings are indicative of a teacher's ability to improve student academic outcomes. According to the state, accreditation legal standard 12 requires each public school corporation to provide the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) a copy of its entire staff performance evaluation plan for all certificated employees, including superintendents and principals, on an annual basis. Furthermore, Indiana stated that it requires the most reliable available assessment must be utilized as the heaviest weighted objective measure in the final summative evaluation. Additionally, the state indicated that objective measures of student achievement and growth must include state assessment results for teachers of subjects measured by such assessments, or methods for assessing student growth for teachers of subjects not measured by state assessments. Where a mandatory state assessment exists, districts must use it as a measure of student learning. If that state assessment provides individual growth data, it must be used as that teacher's primary measure of student learning.

Updated: June 2019

How we graded

7A: Measures of Student Growth 

  • Student Growth: The state should require:
    • That districts use an evaluation instrument that includes objective student growth measure
The full goal score is earned based on the following:

  • Full credit: The state will earn full credit if it requires teacher evaluations to include objective measures of student growth. 

Research rationale

Many factors should be considered in formally evaluating a teacher; however, nothing is more important than effectiveness in the classroom. Value-added models are an important tool for measuring student achievement and school effectiveness.[1] These models have the ability to measure individual students' learning gains, controlling for students' previous knowledge and background characteristics. While some research suggests value-added models are subject to bias and statistical limitations,[2] rich data and strong controls can eliminate error and bias.[3] In the area of teacher quality, examining student growth offers a fairer and potentially more meaningful way to evaluate a teacher's effectiveness than other methods schools use.

Unfortunately, districts have used many evaluation instruments, including some mandated by states, which are structured so that teachers can earn a satisfactory rating without any evidence that they are sufficiently advancing student learning in the classroom.[4] Teacher evaluation instruments should include factors that combine both human judgment and objective measures of student learning.[5]


[1] Hanushek, E. A., & Hoxby, C. M. (2005). Developing value-added measures for teachers and schools. Reforming Education in Arkansas, 99-104.; Clotfelter, C. & Ladd, H. F. (1996). Recognizing and rewarding success in public schools. In H. Ladd (Ed.), Holding schools accountable: Performance based reform in education (pp. 23-64). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.; Ladd, H. F., & Walsh, R. P. (2002). Implementing value-added measures of school effectiveness: Getting the incentives right. Economics of Education Review, 21(1), 1-17.; Meyer, R. H. (1996). Value-added indicators of school performance. In E. A. Hanushek (Ed.), Improving America's schools: The role of incentives, (pp. 197-223). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.; Braun, H. I. (2005). Using student progress to evaluate teachers: A primer on value-added models. Educational Testing Service.
[2] Rothstein, J. (2009). Student sorting and bias in value-added estimation: Selection on observables and unobservables. Education, 4(4), 537-571.; McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D., Louis, T. A., & Hamilton, L. (2004). Models for value-added modeling of teacher effects. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 67-101.; Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 8-15.; McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D. M., & Hamilton, L. S. (2003). Evaluating value-added models for teacher accountability. Monograph. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
[3] Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers II: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. The American Economic Review, 104(9), 2633-2679.; Ballou, D., Sanders, W., & Wright, P. (2004). Controlling for student background in value-added assessment of teachers. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 37-65.; Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers I: Evaluating bias in teacher value-added estimates. The American Economic Review, 104(9), 2593-2632.
[4] Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.; Glazerman, S., Loeb, S., Goldhaber, D., Staiger, D., Raudenbush, S., & Whitehurst, G. (2010). Evaluating teachers: The important role of value-added. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
[5] Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 587-613.; Taylor, E. S., & Tyler, J. H. (2012). The effect of evaluation on teacher performance. The American Economic Review, 102(7), 3628-3651.