Special Education Teacher Preparation Policy
The state should ensure that special education teachers know the science of reading instruction and are fully prepared for the instructional shifts related to literacy associated with college-and career-readiness standards. This goal was consistent between 2015 and 2017.
Scientifically Based Reading Instruction—Tests and Standards: The District of Columbia does not require its special education teachers who teach the elementary grades to pass a rigorous test of reading instruction, nor does it require teacher preparation programs to prepare special education candidates in the principles of scientifically based reading instruction. The District has neither coursework requirements nor standards related to this critical area.
Informational Texts: The District of Columbia's preparation and licensure requirements for special education teachers are not aligned with its college- and career-readiness standards for students. The District does not require content testing, and teacher standards do not address informational texts.
Literacy Skills: The District of Columbia's preparation and licensure requirements for special education teachers do not address the incorporation of literacy skills into the core content areas.
Struggling Readers: The District of Columbia has no requirements for the preparation of elementary or secondary special education teachers that address struggling readers.
DCMR 5-A 1601 and 1602 Educator Testing Flyer https://osse.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/osse/publication/attachments/Educator%20Testing%20Flyer%20as%20of%20March%2027%202017.pdf
Require all special education teacher candidates who teach the elementary grades to pass a rigorous assessment in the science of reading instruction.
The District of Columbia should require a rigorous reading assessment tool to ensure that its elementary special education teacher candidates are adequately prepared in the science of reading instruction before entering the classroom. It is especially critical that these teacher candidates possess the knowledge and skills related to the science of reading and pass a rigorous test that addresses all five instructional components of scientifically based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. Elementary special education teachers who do not possess the minimum knowledge in this area should not be eligible for licensure.
Ensure that teacher preparation programs prepare elementary teaching candidates in the science of reading instruction.
The District of Columbia should require teacher preparation programs in the state to train special education candidates in all five instructional components of scientifically based reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.
Ensure that new special education teachers are prepared to incorporate informational text of increasing complexity into classroom instruction.
Either through testing frameworks or teacher standards, NCTQ encourages the District of Columbia to strengthen its teacher preparation requirements and ensure that all special education candidates—including those teaching under early childhood and secondary licenses—have the ability to adequately incorporate complex informational text into classroom instruction.
Ensure that new special education teachers are prepared to incorporate literacy skills as an integral part of every subject.
To ensure that special education students are capable of accessing varied information about the world around them, the District of Columbia should also—either through testing frameworks or teacher standards—include literacy skills and using text to build content knowledge in history/social studies, science, technical subjects, and the arts.
Support struggling readers.
The District of Columbia should articulate more specific requirements ensuring that all special education teachers are prepared to intervene and support students who are struggling with reading. With reading difficulties generally representing the primary reason for special education placements, it is essential that all special education teachers have the knowledge and skills to diagnose and support students with literacy needs.
The District of Columbia indicated that it does not require the same test of scientifically based reading instruction as elementary teachers because the credential spans the age/grade and
developmental spectrum to include preK-12 grades. Based on the scope of
services allowed under a non-categorical special education credential,
the state does not view special education teachers as the full-time
teacher of record but rather as resource teachers that provide pull out
or push in services to students in the general education classroom in a
team teaching model.
The District asserted that it requires appropriate placement of special education teachers based on their credentials. Individuals who teach in a self-contained special education classroom as the only teacher of record must hold dual licensure in special education and the grade level and/or subject content in which they are assigned to teach based on the required and recommended use of the teaching credential. Thus elementary special education teachers who teach in a self-contained classroom are required to hold a full credential or endorsement in both subject areas. I
The District stated that based on the scope of services allowed under a non-categorical special education credential, special education teachers in the District provide pull out or push in services and instructional accommodations to students in the general education classroom in a team teaching model. Thus, the District does not require additional content testing, and the teacher standards do not address informational texts for this area.
With regard to literacy skills, The District cited its preparation standards for special education in the following areas:
Special educators should be valued for their critical role in working with students with disabilities and special needs; however, they are identified by the District not as "special education assistants" but as "special education teachers," presumably because the District expects them to provide instruction to children. The District makes an effort to distinguish between a consultative and an instructional role. However, whether working as a teacher of record or working with students who are primarily in a general education setting would require at least some knowledge of grade level content in order to make it accessible.
4B: Teaching Special Education Reading
Teaching children to read is the most important task teachers at the elementary level undertake. Over the past 60 years, scientists from many fields have worked to determine how people learn to read and why some struggle. This science of reading has led to breakthroughs that can dramatically reduce the number of children destined to become functionally illiterate or barely literate adults. By routinely applying in the classroom the lessons learned from the scientific findings, most reading failure can be avoided. Estimates indicate that the current failure rate of 20 to 30 percent could be reduced to 2 to 10 percent.
Scientific research has shown that there are five essential components of effective reading instruction: explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Many states' policies still do not reflect the strong research consensus in reading instruction that has emerged over the last few decades. Many teacher preparation programs resist teaching scientifically-based reading instruction. Reports by NCTQ on teacher preparation, beginning with What Education Schools Aren't Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren't Learning in 2006 and continuing through the Teacher Prep Review in 2016, have consistently found the overwhelming majority of teacher preparation programs across the country do not train teachers in the science of reading. Whether through standards or coursework requirements, states must direct programs to provide this critical training. But relying on programs alone is insufficient; states must only grant licenses to new special education teachers who can demonstrate they have the knowledge and skills to teach children to read.
Effective early reading instruction is especially important for teachers of special education students. By far, the largest classification of students receiving special education services are those with learning disabilities. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Education, it is estimated that reading disabilities account for about 80 percent of learning disabilities. While early childhood and elementary teachers must know the reading science to prevent reading difficulties, special education teachers, and especially elementary special education teachers, must know how to support students who have already fallen behind and struggle with reading and literacy skills. States should require no less from special education teachers in terms of preparation to teach reading than they require from general education teachers.
College- and career-readiness standards require significant shifts in literacy instruction. College- and career-readiness standards for K-12 students adopted by nearly all states require from teachers a different focus on literacy integrated into all subject areas. The standards demand that teachers are prepared to bring complex text and academic language into regular use, emphasize the use of evidence from informational and literary texts, and build knowledge and vocabulary through content-rich texts. While most states have not ignored teachers' need for training and professional development related to these instructional shifts, states also need to attend to the parallel need to align teacher competencies and requirements for teacher preparation so that new teachers will enter the classroom ready to help students meet the expectations of these standards. For special education teachers, preparation and training must focus on managing these instructional shifts while also helping students who may have serious reading deficiencies.