The state should ensure that secondary teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
Connecticut requires that its secondary teacher candidates pass a Praxis II content test to teach any core secondary subjects. Unfortunately, Connecticut permits a significant loophole to this important policy by allowing both general science and general social studies licenses, without requiring subject-matter testing for each subject area within these disciplines (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
To add an additional field to a secondary license, teachers in Connecticut must pass a Praxis II content test as well as complete subject-specific coursework requirements, generally around 30 semester hours. However, as stated above, the state cannot guarantee content knowledge in each specific subject for those secondary teachers who add the combination science or general social studies endorsements.
Connecticut Code 10-145f Regulation of State Board of Education 10-145d-428, -451
Require subject-matter testing for all secondary teacher candidates.
Connecticut wisely requires subject-matter tests for most secondary teachers but should address any loopholes that undermine this policy (see Goals 1-G and 1-H). This applies to the addition of endorsements as well.
Connecticut asserted that science teachers may hold a content-specific certificate in the following five science areas: biology, chemistry, earth science, general science and/or physics. The state added that candidates must earn a major in that content area and pass a content-specific Praxis II exam, adding: "The general science certificate is typically used by middle school and freshman science courses that include content on biology, chemistry and physical science topics."
Connecticut also noted that the information regarding the general history/social studies certificate is accurate and is the only "general" certificate issued in the state.
The issue of general science is addressed more fully in Goal 1-G. Connecticut should ensure that its requirements do not make it possible for secondary teachers to be licensed to teach any core subjects with insufficient content knowledge.
Research studies have demonstrated the positive impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement. For example, see D. Goldhaber, "Everyone's Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" Journal of Human Resources, vol. XLII no.4 (2007). See also Harris, D., and Sass, T., "Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement." Teacher Quality Research (2007).Evidence can also be found in White, Pressely, DeAngelis "Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois" Illinois Education Research Council (2008); D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Does teacher certification matter? High School Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 22: 129-145. (2000); and D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity." Journal of Human Resources (1998).