The state should ensure that new elementary teachers know the science of reading instruction and are prepared for the instructional shifts related to literacy associated with college-and career-readiness standards. This goal was consistent between 2015 and 2017.
Scientifically Based Reading Instruction—Tests and Standards: As a condition of initial licensure, California requires all new elementary teachers to pass a reading instruction test, the Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (RICA). This assessment adequately addresses the five components of scientific reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.
California also requires that teacher preparation programs for elementary teacher candidates address the science of reading. Prior to initial licensure, candidates must satisfy the "Developing English Language Skills" requirement, which includes a comprehensive reading instruction course that focuses on "the systematic study of phonemic awareness, phonics and decoding; literature, language and comprehension; and diagnostic and early intervention techniques."
Informational Texts: Elementary teacher candidates must be prepared for the key instructional shifts related to literacy that differentiate college- and career-readiness standards from their predecessors. California addresses the instructional shifts in the use of text associated with the state's college- and career-readiness standards for students in its Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (RICA), which is a requirement for elementary teachers. According to content specifications, teachers must be able to "understand how to promote students' comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills." Additional in-depth testing standards follow the competency to further ensure alignment with these shifts.
In addition, testing standards for the required CSET: Multiple Subjects test's "Reading, Language, and Literature" subtest now address both informational texts and text complexity. The state's new Elementary Multiple Subjects program preparation standards are fully aligned with the RICA test framework.
Literacy Skills: California's required CSET: Multiple Subjects test framework addresses incorporating literacy in other subject areas, including science and social studies. In addition, the state's new Elementary Multiple Subjects program preparation standards are fully aligned with the RICA test framework.
Struggling Readers: California addresses the needs of struggling readers in its testing standards for the RICA and CSET: Multiple Subjects tests. In addition, California's educator preparation standards in Reading, Writing and Related Language Instruction for Multiple Subject credential candidates address the needs of struggling readers by requiring that teachers "must demonstrate knowledge and ability to use multiple monitoring measures within the three basic types of assessments to determine students' progress towards state adopted content standards...[and] candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions."
RICA and CSET Assessments http://www.ctcexams.nesinc.com/index.asp Elementary Multiple Subject Program Standards https://www.ctc.ca.gov/educator-prep/stds-subject-matter California Education Code Section 44283(c) Credential Requirements http://www.ctc.ca.gov/credentials/leaflets/cl561c.pdf
Due to California's strong policies in this area, no recommendations are provided.
California declined to respond to NCTQ's analyses.
2C: Teaching Elementary Reading
Teaching children to read is the most important task teachers undertake. Over the past 60 years, scientists from many fields have worked to determine how people learn to read and why some struggle. This science of reading has led to breakthroughs that can dramatically reduce the number of children destined to become functionally illiterate or barely literate adults, identifying five components of effective instruction. In fact, most reading failure can be avoided by routinely applying the lessons learned from the scientific findings in the classroom. Estimates indicate that the current failure rate of 20 to 30 percent could be reduced to 2 to 10 percent.
Scientific research has shown that there are five essential components of effective reading instruction: explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Many states' policies still do not reflect the strong research consensus in reading instruction that has emerged over the last few decades. Many teacher preparation programs resist teaching scientifically-based reading instruction. Reports by NCTQ on teacher preparation, beginning with What Education Schools Aren't Teaching about Reading and What Elementary Teachers Aren't Learning in 2006 and continuing through the Teacher Prep Review in 2016 have consistently found the overwhelming majority of teacher preparation programs across the country do not train teachers in the science of reading, although the most recent Teacher Prep Review did find signs of improvement. Whether through standards or coursework requirements, states must direct programs to provide this critical training. But relying on programs alone is insufficient; states must only grant licenses to new elementary teachers who can demonstrate they have the knowledge and skills to teach children to read.
Most current reading tests do not offer assurance that teachers know the science of reading. A growing number of states, such as Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia, require strong, stand-alone assessments entirely focused on the science of reading. Other states rely on either pedagogy tests or content tests that include items on reading instruction. However, since reading instruction is addressed only in one small part of most of these tests, it is often not necessary to know the science of reading to pass. States need to make sure that a teacher candidate cannot pass a test that purportedly covers reading instruction without knowing the critical material.
College- and career-readiness standards require significant shifts in literacy instruction. College- and career-readiness standards for K-12 students adopted by nearly all states require from teachers a different focus on literacy integrated into all subject areas. The standards demand that teachers are prepared to bring complex text and academic language into regular use, emphasize the use of evidence from informational and literary texts and build knowledge and vocabulary through content-rich text. While most states have not ignored teachers' need for training and professional development related to these instructional shifts, few states have attended to the parallel need to align teacher competencies and requirements for teacher preparation so that new teachers will enter the classroom ready to help students meet the expectations of these standards.