General Teacher Preparation Policy
The state should inform district hiring needs with key teacher supply and demand data. The bar for this goal was raised in 2017.
Teacher Production Data: California publishes an annual report entitled Teacher Supply in California, which includes data on the number of teachers who received credentials, certificates, permits and waivers and addresses issues regarding the supply of teachers newly available to teach in California classrooms. Specifically, the report breaks down the number of credentials by those earning multiple subject, single subject, and education specialist certifications. It also includes a table that compares the number of teaching credentials to permits issued for each authorization; these numbers include documents for individuals recommended by California institutions as well as for those who completed an out-of-state program.
Finally, the report includes a forecast of supply via the Future Teacher Supply Indicator: Teacher Preparation Program Enrollment Data and Teacher Demand: Estimated Teacher Hires by Region, County, and Subject Areas. The Teacher Demand section, specifically, uses past data to estimate the hiring needs for the next year, including identifying the geographic regions and subject areas where the greatest demand is estimated to be. However, it does not explicitly connect its Teacher Supply and Teacher Demand indicators so that its preparation programs can use those data to make informed decisions regarding the number of program candidates to admit.
Program Acceptance Numbers: California collects data on teacher production by programs, but it does not provide these programs with guidelines surrounding the number of teacher candidates that should be accepted per subject area.
Teacher Supply http://www.ctc.ca.gov/reports/all-reports.html
Explicitly connect supply and demand data to district hiring needs.
California is on the right track in reporting teacher production and demand data. However, it should strengthen its data collection practices by explicitly connecting these two data sets and using them to inform policy decisions.
Provide clear guidance regarding program acceptance numbers.
Not only should California collect data on teacher production by programs, it should also provide programs with guidelines surrounding the number of teacher candidates that should be accepted per subject area. By establishing clear parameters for its approved programs that govern how many teachers in each major certification area should be produced, California will be on track to reduce the chronic surplus of teachers in some certification areas and increase the number of teachers in chronic shortage areas.
California declined to respond to NCTQ's analyses.
1B: Teacher Shortages and Surpluses
It is an inefficient use of resources for individual districts to build their own data systems for tracking teachers. States need to take the lead and provide districts with state-level data that can be used not only for the purpose of measuring teacher effectiveness, but also to gauge the supply and demand of teachers in the state. Furthermore, multiple years of data are necessary to identify staffing trends.
Many preparation programs graduate people who are certified to teach but do not get jobs in the classroom. Often times, this is because these teachers pursue certifications in areas that already have a surplus of teachers (e.g., elementary education), while districts struggle to find applicants to hire in other areas (e.g., special education, science). Given this misalignment between the teachers that teacher preparation programs produce and the hiring needs of school districts, the state should step in to establish a cohesive data reporting system. By creating reports that publicly delineate the number of teachers produced by each teacher preparation program (and therefore by certification area), the state will be better able to identify instances where the production of teachers does not match districts' needs.
Furthermore, the state should consider whether teacher preparation programs are supplying districts with the teachers they need when approving or re-approving programs. Teacher preparation programs exist primarily to prepare teachers for public school positions (approximately 88 percent of teachers work in public schools). If teacher preparation programs produce far more teachers than the state needs in some certification areas and far too few in others, the programs are failing to meeting their state's demand. Moreover, student teaching placements (which tend to be near candidates' teacher prep programs) are highly predictive of where candidates will get their first teaching jobs, therefore also allowing states the ability to predict which open positions are likely to be filled. Given that the preparation program's function is to supply the nearby area (and more generally, the state) with public school teachers, it is incumbent upon the state to make sure the program fulfills that responsibility— particularly through the collection and application of data on teacher production numbers and district demand— and to intervene when necessary by capping the number of teachers in certain certification areas that a program can produce.