Professional Development: West Virginia

2011 Retaining Effective Teachers Policy

Goal

The state should require professional development to be based on needs identified through teacher evaluations.

Meets in part
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). Professional Development: West Virginia results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/WV-Professional-Development-9

Analysis of West Virginia's policies

West Virginia requires that teachers receive a signed copy of their observation form after each 30-minute classroom observation as well as have a post-observation conference with the supervisor. In addition, evaluations must provide written recommendations for meeting performance criteria and characteristics.
 
Professional growth plans and development plans can be requested for teachers with five or more years of experience who have not received an unsatisfactory rating when the supervisor determines it to be necessary. The state does not specify that professional development activities must be aligned with findings from teacher evaluations.

Citation

Recommendations for West Virginia

Ensure that professional development is aligned with findings from teachers' evaluations.
Professional development that is not informed by evaluation results may be of little value to teachers' professional growth and aim of increasing their effectiveness in the classroom. West Virginia should ensure that districts utilize teacher evaluation results in determining professional development needs and activities for all teachers, not just those requested by supervisors.

State response to our analysis

West Virginia asserted that the coursework required to renew a license may be prescribed by the county as a result of the teacher's evaluation.

Last word

The policy the state points to does stipulate that credits taken for license renewal may be "prescribed by the county as a result of an applicant's evaluation." However, this policy does not ensure that professional development activities are aligned with teachers' evaluations, particularly because the state offers a lifetime license after a teacher has completed two licensure renewals, which are required every five years. Thus, after teaching in West Virginia for 10 years, a teacher is no longer required to renew his or her license, and any professional development associated with this activity ceases to be required as well.

How we graded

Professional development should be connected to needs identified through teacher evaluations.

The goal of teacher evaluation systems should be not just to identify highly effective teachers and those who underperform but to help all teachers improve.  Even highly effective teachers may have areas where they can continue to grow and develop their knowledge and skills. Rigorous evaluations should provide actionable feedback on teachers? strengths and weaknesses that can form the basis of professional development activities.  Too often professional development is random rather than targeted to the identified needs of individual teachers.  Failure to make the connection between evaluations and professional development squanders the likelihood that professional development will be meaningful.

Many states are only explicit about tying professional development plans to evaluation results if the evaluation results are bad.  Good evaluations with meaningful feedback should be useful to all teachers, and if done right should help design professional development plans for all teachers—not just those who receive poor ratings.  

Research rationale

For evidence of the benefits of feedback from evaluation systems, and the potential for professional development surrounding that feedback, see T. Kane et al, "Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness." Education Next. Vol 11, No. 3 (2011); E. Taylor and J. Tyler, "The Effect of Evaluation on Performance: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Achievement Data of Mid-Career Teachers." National Bureau of Economic Research (2011).

Much professional development, particularly those that are not aligned to specific feedback from teacher evaluations, has been found to be ineffective.  For evidence see M. Garet, "Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the Second Year of Implementation." Institute of Education Sciences (2011).

For additional evidence regarding best practices for professional development, see "The Deliver, Financing, and Assessment of Professional Development in Education: Pre-Service Preparation and In-Service Training." The Finance Project (2003).