General Teacher Preparation Policy
The state should require teacher preparation programs to admit only candidates with strong academic records and support programs to encourage greater numbers of qualified individuals of color to become teachers. This goal was ungraded in 2020.
GPA/Testing Requirement: Washington requires an "overall cohort average of 3.0 GPA in coursework most immediately preceding program admission for entrants in all programs in an educator preparation program during a given academic year."
Due to new legislation, Washington now requires aspiring teachers to take, but not necessarily pass, its basic skills test, the Washington Educator Skills Test (WEST-B), as a criterion for admission to a teacher preparation program. Candidates from outside the state may submit proof of having taken the Praxis Core or an approved basic skills tests from another state. These tests are also normed to just the prospective teacher population. Washington also allows teacher preparation programs to exempt candidates who submit proof of having taken the ACT or SAT. Washington may use the results of these assessments "as a formative assessment of academic strengths and weakness in determining the candidate's readiness for the program."
Diversity Programs: Washington has implemented programs designed to increase the diversity of its teacher candidates. The state funds the Advancing Equity grant, which is a two-year grant of up to $10,000 for educator preparation programs that will pilot work to inform policies and practices related to racial equity, community engagement, and cultural responsiveness. Washington also funds an alternative route block grant, which provides funding for preparation programs, districts, and candidate scholarships to support alternative route programs engaging grow-your-own teacher strategies to address district needs.
State of Washington Teacher Assessments https://www.pesb.wa.gov/preparation-programs/standards/assessments/basic-skills-assessment-west-b/ RCW 28A.410.220 Washington Administrative Code 181-78A-110; -231; -300 September 2019 Professional Education Standards Board meeting materials https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/folders/1X2fdaLDB5s3zRjkG8g9CLEfEOH5TViH0 HB 1621 (2019) http://lawfilesext.leg.wa.gov/biennium/2019-20/Pdf/Bills/House%20Passed%20Legislature/1621-S.PL.pdf Memo to Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) members re: program performance on indicators dated 2/6/19 http://bit.ly/2Qxrw9W Grants https://www.pesb.wa.gov/innovation-policy/grants-pilots/
Require that teacher preparation programs screen candidates for academic proficiency prior to admission.
Teacher preparation programs that do not screen candidates invest considerable resources in individuals who may not be able to successfully complete the program, pass licensing tests, and ultimately succeed in the classroom. Candidates in need of additional support should complete remediation before entering the program to avoid the possibility of an unsuccessful investment of significant public resources. Washington should require candidates to pass a test of academic proficiency that assesses reading, mathematics, and writing that is normed to the general college-going population prior to program admission. Alternatively, the state could require a minimum grade point average of at least 3.0 for individuals or 3.2 for cohorts of accepted candidates in order to establish that prospective teachers have a strong academic history.
Consider requiring candidates to pass subject-matter tests as a condition of admission into teacher programs.
In addition to ensuring that programs require a measure of academic performance for admission, Washington may also consider requiring subject-matter testing prior to program admission, rather than at the point of program completion. Doing so would provide candidates lacking sufficient subject-matter expertise with an opportunity to remedy deficits prior to entering formal preparation.
Washington was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts necessary for this analysis.
Evidence is strong that countries whose students consistently outperform U.S. students set a much higher bar for entry to teacher preparation programs than what is typically found in the United States. Far from the top third or even top tenth to which more selective countries limit candidates, most states do not even aim for the top 50 percent. Previous analysis has shown that many states do not require that preparation programs evaluate candidates' academic proficiency as a condition of admission to teacher preparation at all; most others set a low bar by requiring basic skills tests that generally assess middle school-level skills or by requiring a minimum GPA, but too few demand at least a 3.0.
In addition to the low skill level tested by current basic skills tests (e.g., the Praxis Core), another concern is that they are normed only to the prospective teacher population, which does not allow for comparability between prospective teachers and the entire college-bound population. Tests normed to the general college-bound population would shine a clearer light on the academic proficiency of those admitted to teacher preparation programs and allow programs to be truly selective.
While a positive start, CAEP standards are no substitute for states' own policies. CAEP's standards require that the group average performance on nationally normed ability assessments such as ACT, SAT, or GRE be in the top 50th percentile. However, CAEP allows programs the unnecessary freedom to determine whether the minimum criteria will be measured prior to admissions or at some point during the program. Clear state admission policies would send an unequivocal message to programs about the state's expectations for high admissions standards.
Research is clear about the positive effects of teachers with stronger academic backgrounds on student achievement. Higher teacher selectivity, as measured by factors such as SAT/ACT scores, GPA prior to program admission, and an institute of higher education's (IHE) general competitiveness or selectivity, has a significant, positive correlation with student achievement. Some studies support higher academic admissions standards for entry into TPPs, including studies showing a relationship between student achievement and teachers' verbal ability or selectivity of the teachers' college. Although research supports applying greater selectivity when admitting teacher candidates, some recent work has found no correlation between teachers' scores on tests normed to the general college-bound population (e.g., SAT, ACT) or IHE selectivity and student achievement.
States should support increased diversity in the teacher pipeline, in addition to maintaining high admissions standards for teacher preparation programs. Recent data show that 49 percent of students in the US were students of color, while only 17 percent of teachers were teachers of color. Twenty-eight states had gaps between the percentage of students and educators of color that were greater than 25 percentage points. A growing body of research suggests that students of color—students who often face the largest achievement gaps—benefit from having same-race teachers. Exposure to same-race teachers positively benefits student achievement, teachers' expectations and perceptions of students, teachers' assessments and perceptions of student behavior, students' rates of suspension and expulsion, students' assignment to Gifted and Talented programs, and students' perceptions of teachers. Some research suggests that teachers of the same race as their students are more likely to reduce high-school dropout rates as well as increase student attendance and college attendance intent, and improve discipline. Moreover, white students report that they favor teachers of color.