The state should support differential pay for effective teaching in shortage and high-need areas.
Washington offers incentives to teach certain subjects. The state offers scholarships
or loan repayments and gives priority to candidates seeking certification in
math, science, technology or special education.
The Washington Educator Retooling program is also available to help teachers add endorsements in secondary and middle-level math and science. Existing teachers are offered funding of up to $3,000 a year for two years to teach these subject-shortage areas.
Washington also supports differential pay for those teaching at high-need schools. Teachers who are National Board Certified are eligible for an additional $5,000 annual bonus if they teach at a high-poverty school with students participating in the free or reduced-lunch program at 70 percent for elementary schools, 60 percent for middle schools and 50 percent for high schools.
Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 250-65-110; 392-140-973(3), -974 Educator Retooling Program http://www.pesb.wa.gov/pesb-programs/scholarships/retooling National Board Certified Teachers http://www.k12.wa.us/certification/nbpts/TeacherBonus.aspx
As a result of Washington’s strong differential pay policies, no recommendations are provided.
Washington had no comment on this goal.
States should help
address chronic shortages and needs.
States should ensure that state-level policies (such as a uniform salary schedule) do not interfere with districts' flexibility in compensating teachers in ways that best meet their individual needs and resources. However, when it comes to addressing chronic shortages, states should do more than simply get out of the way. They should provide direct support for differential pay for effective teaching in shortage subject areas and high-need schools. Attracting effective and qualified teachers to high-need schools or filling vacancies in hard-to-staff subjects are problems that are frequently beyond a district's ability to solve. States that provide direct support for differential pay in these areas are taking an important step in promoting the equitable distribution of quality teachers. Short of providing direct support, states can also use policy levers to indicate to districts that differential pay is not only permissible but necessary.
Differential Pay: Supporting Research
Two recent studies emphasize the need for differential pay. In "Teacher Quality and Teacher Mobility", L. Feng and T. Sass find that high performing teachers tend to transfer to schools with a large proportion of other high performing teachers and students, while low performing teachers cluster in bottom quartile schools. Calder Institute, Working Paper 57, January 2011. Another study from T. Sass, et al., found that the least effective teachers in high-poverty schools were considerably less effective than the least effective teachers in low-poverty schools http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001469-calder-working-paper-52.pdf.
C. Clotfelter, E. Glennie, H. Ladd, and J. Vigdor, "Would Higher Salaries Keep Teachers in High-Poverty Schools? Evidence from a Policy Intervention in North Carolina," NBER Working Paper 12285, June 2006.
J. Kowal, B. Hassel, and E. Hassel, "Financial Incentives for Hard-To-Staff Positions: Cross-Sector Lessons for Public Education," Center for American Progress, November 2008.
A study by researchers at Rand found that higher pay lowered attrition, and the effect was stronger in high-needs school districts. Every $1,000 increase was estimated to decrease attrition by more than 6 percent. See S. Kirby, M. Berends, and S. Naftel, "Supply and Demand of Minority Teachers in Texas: Problems and Prospects," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Volume 21, No. 1, March 20, 1999, pp. 47-66 at: http://epa.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/21/1/47.