The state should ensure that substitute teachers are appropriately placed and assessed in the classroom. This goal was new in 2017 and was not graded.
Substitute License(s): Virginia does not offer substitute licenses, but it does maintain minimal education requirements and the length of assignment of substitute teachers.
Substitutes must have a high school diploma or GED, two full years of post secondary education or two full years of experience in working with children.
Length of Assignment: Virginia specifies that a substitute teacher is not permitted to teach for longer than 90 days in the same assignment without approval by superintendent of public instruction.
Evaluation of Long-Term Substitutes: Virginia has no requirements for the evaluation of any of its substitute teachers.
Virginia Code 22.1-302(A) 8VAC 20-671-320 Guidelines for the Employment of Substitute Teachers http://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/regulations/guidelines_cov_emp_substitute_teachers.pdf
Require substitute teachers to have a substitute license.
Virginia should require all substitute teachers to obtain a substitute teaching license. Licenses issued by the state allow for uniform minimum requirements so that all districts have access to a similarly qualified substitute teaching pool.
Distinguish requirements for short-term and long-term substitutes.
Virginia should distinguish between requirements for short-term and long-term substitutes so that it can ensure that its requirements are appropriate for the needs of these teachers. The state's long-term substitute requirements should be rigorous (e.g., that all long-term substitutes have current or expired licenses) to help ensure that teachers who are spending extended periods of time with students are prepared to do so.
Limit the number of consecutive days a short-term substitute can teach in the same classroom.
Virginia should limit the number of consecutive days a short-term substitute can teach in the same classroom without completing additional requirements or obtaining a long-term substitute license. The maximum number of days should be no more than 10 percent of the length of the school year. Virginia's policy of allowing substitute teachers to teach 90 consecutive days in the same classroom may be detrimental to instructional quality and daily productivity.
Require long-term substitute teachers to be evaluated.
Virginia should maintain standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for licensed teachers for extended periods of time. Virginia can help ensure that substitute teachers are held to high standards and have access to the supports necessary to improve their practice by requiring evaluations —
which it may find appropriate to modify from its standard, state-required teacher evaluations — of long-term substitutes.
Virginia recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis and was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced the analysis.
Research finds that teacher absences negatively affect student achievement and growth. While some of this is attributable to the disruption of regular classroom practices and instruction, it may also be attributable to substitute teacher quality. The gap in instructional quality and daily productivity when a regular teacher is replaced by a substitute teacher is significant. However, absences covered by substitutes licensed by the state are not as detrimental to student achievement as those covered by non-licensed substitutes. Some research hypothesizes that the low-skill level and mobility of substitute teachers may contribute to the reduction in instructional focus and quality and that even when substitute teachers are good instructors, they may be unable to effectively implement a teacher of record's long-term instructional strategies. Parents, teachers, principals, and students have concerns about substitute teachers' quality and qualifications. States should maintain rigorous standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for teachers for long stretches of time.