Preparation for the Classroom: Texas

Alternate Routes Policy

Goal

The state should ensure that its alternate routes provide efficient preparation that is relevant to the immediate needs of new teachers through targeted and manageable coursework, as well as supervised practice teaching opportunities and intensive induction support that includes mentorship. This goal has been revised since 2017.

Meets in part
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2019). Preparation for the Classroom: Texas results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/TX-Preparation-for-the-Classroom-93

Analysis of Texas's policies

Texas authorizes routes to alternate certification through alternate certification programs (ACPs).

Practice Teaching: Texas requires that 15 hours of candidates' field experiences must be designated for candidates to actively engage in instructional or educational activities that include authentic school settings, instruction by content certified teachers, actual students in instructional settings, content or grade-level specific classroom settings, and written reflection and observation. While this requirement ensures that alternate route candidates experience classroom settings, it does not ensure that candidates participate in a supervised practice teaching opportunity.
In July 2019, the State Board for Educator Certification established an optional intensive pre-service option for alternative and post-baccalaureate programs.The proposed new rule encourages EPPs to offer pre-service training and bring the benefit of clinical teaching to alternative certification and post-baccalaureate candidates. Candidate with an intern certificate or probationary certificate would move into a role as teacher of record by passing the subject-matter only examination and successfully completing the intensive pre-service training requirements. A candidate would not need to take the content pedagogy examination for issuance of the intern certificate. Proposed new §228.33(a) would establish the programmatic requirements of intensive pre-service prior to issuance of an intern certificate including an intensive program with a minimum of four consecutive weeks; at least 12 instructional days with one hour of supervised instruction per day; and at least four face-to-face observation/feedback coaching sessions provided by a qualified coach that include observations of at least 15 minutes and coaching meetings that are a minimum of 30 minutes. EPPs are not mandated to offer this intensive pre-service. A candidate taking this route would still be held to the same testing requirements after earning their intern certificates and would be encouraged to take the performance assessment to pair practice-based preparation with a practice-based assessment.

Induction Support: Texas requires that all new teachers receive mentoring support. Proposed new §228.33(b) outlines coaching requirements for the pre-service. 

Manageable Coursework: Texas specifies that all teacher preparation programs, including alternate routes, ensure that candidates complete a minimum of 300 clock hours of training and/or coursework. This includes a minimum of 30 clock-hours of field-based experience and prior to any clinical teaching or internship.
There is no limit on the amount of coursework that can be required overall, nor on the amount of coursework a candidate can be required to take while also teaching.

Targeted Coursework: Coursework must allow candidates to demonstrate proficiency in a number of competencies, including but not limited to, creating well-designed and flexible lessons that are appropriate for diverse learners, collecting and analyzing student progress data to inform instruction, ensuring high levels of learning for all students, communicating clear expectations for student behavior, self-reflecting, and effectively communicating with students, families, colleagues, and community members.

Citation

Recommendations for Texas

Limit coursework for new teachers.
Texas should ensure that all novice alternate route teachers have manageable coursework while teaching. Given the demands on a novice teacher's time, course requirements should not exceed three credit hours in the spring and fall and six credit hours in the summer.

State response to our analysis

Texas was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis. NCTQ looks forward to reviewing new policies regarding the pre-service training for alternative route candidates.

Updated: November 2019

How we graded

5B: Preparation for the Classroom
 
  • Practice Teaching: The state should require a supervised practice-teaching experience prior to entry into the classroom as the "teacher of record".
  • Induction: The state should require that all new teachers receive intensive induction support that includes mentorship with experienced educators.
  • Manageable Coursework: The state should ensure that the amount of coursework it either requires or allows is manageable for a novice teacher. Anything exceeding 12 credit/semester hours or 40 contact/clock hours per year may be counterproductive, placing too great a burden on the teacher. This calculation is premised on no more than six credit hours in the summer, three credit hours in the spring, and three credit hours in the fall.
  • Targeted Coursework: The state should ensure that all coursework requirements are targeted to the immediate needs of new teachers, with an emphasis on classroom behavioral management (courses that include childhood development and psychology, culturally responsive teaching and learning, diverse learners, etc.) and pedagogy (courses that include curriculum, instructional planning and assessment; differentiated learning; etc.).
Preparation for the Classroom
The total goal score is earned based on the following:
  • Full credit: The state will earn the full point if all four elements - practice teaching, induction, manageable coursework, and targeted coursework - are required for every alternate route program/pathway offered by the state.
  • Three-quarters credit: The state will earn three-quarters of a point if three elements are required for every alternate route program/pathway offered by the state.
  • One-half credit: The state will earn one-half of a point if two elements are required for every alternate route program/pathway offered by the state.
  • One-quarter credit: The state will earn one-quarter of a point if one element is required for every alternate route program/pathway offered by the state.

Research rationale

Teachers who enter the profession through alternate routes report lower levels of self-efficacy compared to beginning teachers who enter through traditional teacher preparation programs. Alternate route teachers are likely to be especially concerned about their ability to effectively deliver instruction, manage the classroom, and plan lessons[1]. Most new teachers—regardless of their preparation—find themselves overwhelmed by the responsibilities of the job. This is especially true for alternate route teachers, who may have had considerably less classroom exposure than traditionally prepared teachers[2]. States must ensure that alternate routes do not leave new teachers to "sink or swim" on their own when they begin teaching.

It is critical that all alternate routes provide at least a brief student teaching or other supervised practice experience for candidates before they enter their own classrooms. Field work and exposure to real classrooms offers a scaffolded opportunity for prospective new teachers to gain practical experience. Across areas of instruction, student teachers feel significantly better prepared after completing student teaching[3]. Access to highly-effective rated cooperating teachers in student teaching experiences results in pronounced positive outcomes for students of aspiring teachers[4].

Additionally, all new teachers need comprehensive and ongoing professional development even after they become "teachers of record.[5]" Effective induction programs go beyond the basics of new teacher orientation[6] and may include comprehensive supports, such as mentorship, common planning time with other teachers, reduced teaching course loads, and assistance from a classroom aide. Access to a mentor teacher with subject-area expertise and dedicated common collaboration time with other teachers of the same subject area are cited as the two most effective factors in reducing first-year turnover and improving job satisfaction and commitment[7]. Robust and consistent mentorship not only helps new teachers feel supported, but also improves retention and student outcomes[8]. Importantly, students' academic performance increases when they're taught by teachers who are highly engaged in induction programs with mentorship, as compared to students of teachers who are not engaged in such programs[9]. Induction programs should require new teachers, especially those who enter the profession through alternate routes with limited preparation, to collaborate with experienced and effective mentors who can guide them through what can often be a challenging transition into a new career.

Alternate routes must provide practical and meaningful coursework that is sensitive to a new teacher's workload and stress level. State policies that require alternate route programs to "backload" large amounts of traditional education coursework prevent the emergence of real alternatives to traditional preparation. This issue is especially important given the large proportion of alternate route teachers who complete required coursework in the evenings and on weekends while also teaching[10]. States need to be careful to require participants only to meet standards or complete coursework that is practical and immediately helpful to a new teacher[11]. That is, while advanced pedagogy coursework may be meaningful for veteran teachers, alternate route coursework should build on more fundamental professional competencies such as classroom management techniques, instructional methods, or curriculum delivery. Alternate route participants' primary concern as novice teachers is managing the classroom, which should be a focus in required coursework. Furthermore, the curriculum for teacher training programs must be aligned to what beginner teachers experience in the classroom. Clear connections between theory and best teaching practices enable coursework to be directly translated into the classroom[12].


[1] Forsbach-Rothman, T., Margolin, M., & Bloom, D. (2007). Student Teachers and Alternate Route Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Views of Teacher Preparation. Journal of the National Association for Alternative Certification,2(1), 29-41. Retrieved from http://jnaac.com/index.php/JNAAC/article/view/45/33

[2] Greenberg, J., Walsh, K., & McKee, A. (2014). Teacher Prep Review: A review of the nation's teacher preparation programs.Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Teacher_Prep_Review_2014_Report

[3] Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Strengthening Clinical Preparation: The Holy Grail of Teacher Education. Peabody Journal of Education,89(4), 547-561. doi:https://doi-org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/10.1080/0161956X.2014.939009

[4] Goldhaber, D., Krieg, J., & Theobald, R. (2019). Leveraging the student-teaching experience to train tomorrow's great teachers. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2019/05/20/leveraging-the-student-teaching-experience-to-train-tomorrows-great-teachers/.

[5] For a further review of the research on new teacher induction, see: Rogers, M., Lopez, A., Lash, A., Schaffner, M., Shields, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Review of research on the impact of beginning teacher induction on teacher quality and retention. Retrieved from http://www.newteacher.com/pdf/ResearchontheImpactofInduction.pdf

[6] Wong, H. K. (2004). Induction Programs That Keep New Teachers Teaching and Improving. NASSP Bulletin, 88(638), 41-58. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f71d/e558a5e10724e31ba26d477057ef0272110b.pdf

[7] Ingersoll, R. M. (2012, May 16). Beginning Teacher Induction: What the Data Tell us. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/05/16/kappan_ingersoll.h31.html

[8] Brody, S. (2017, November). A bright spot for PD—new teacher induction that works [Web log post]. Retrieved from https://www.nctq.org/blog/A-bright-spot-for-PDnew-teacher-induction-that-works

[9] There is no shortage of research that indicates the students of new teachers who receive strong mentorship have higher scores than those of new teachers with minimal to no or weak mentorship. See: Best Practices in Teacher and Administrator Induction Programs. (2016). California County Superintendents Educational Services Association. Retrieved from http://ccsesa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Best-Practices-in-Teacher-and-Administrator-Induction-Programs.pdf

[10] Constantine, J., Player, D., Silva, T., Hallgren, K., Grider, M., & Deke, J. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4043. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504313.pdf

[11] Walsh, K., & Jacobs, S. (2007). Alternative certification isn't alternative. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498382.pdf

[12] O'Connora, E. A., Malow, M. S., & Bisland, B. M. (2011). Mentorship and instruction received during training: Views of alternatively certified teachers. Educational Review,63(2), 219-232. doi:10.1080/00131911.2010.537312