The state should require that its school districts consider classroom performance as a factor in determining which teachers are laid off when a reduction in force is necessary.
In Oregon, the factors used to determine which teachers are laid off during a reduction in force consider a teacher's seniority and licensure status. In addition to considering licensure and seniority, a district can "determine competence and merit of teachers." Districts are permitted—but not required—to retain a teacher with less seniority than another if the less senior teacher is deemed to have "more competence or merit." Further, school districts cannot waive the right to consider "competence" in making layoff decisions during a reduction in force.
Oregon Revised Statute 342.934
Require that districts consider classroom performance as a factor in determining which teachers are laid off during reductions in force.
Oregon can still leave districts flexibility in determining layoff policies, but it should do so within a framework that ensures that classroom performance is considered.
Ensure that seniority is not the only factor used to determine which teachers are laid off.
Unlike other states, Oregon does not require that seniority be the sole factor in deciding who is laid off during a reduction in force. However, the policy currently in place is problematic in that it does not require that competence and merit are considered. The state should ensure that what matters most—a teacher's effectiveness—is given due weight in determining which teachers are laid off.
Oregon had no comment on this goal.
LIFO policies put adult interests before student needs.
Across the country, most districts utilize "last in, first out" policies in the event of teacher layoffs. Most states leave these decisions to district discretion; some states require layoffs to be based on seniority. Such policies fail to give due weight to a teacher's classroom performance and risk sacrificing effective teachers while maintaining low performers.
Policies that prioritize seniority in layoff decisions can also cause significant upheaval in schools and school districts. As teachers who are newer to the classroom traditionally draw lower salaries, a seniority-based layoff policy is likely to require that districts lay off a larger number of probationary teachers rather than a smaller group of ineffective teachers to achieve the same budget reduction.
States can leave districts flexibility in determining layoff policies, but they should do so while also ensuring that classroom performance is considered. Further, if performance is prioritized, states need not prohibit the use of seniority as an additional criterion in determining who is laid off.
Reductions in Force: Supporting Research
See National Council on Teacher Quality, "Teacher Layoffs: Rethinking 'Last-Hired, First-Fired' Policies", 2010; The New Teacher Project, "The Case Against Quality-Blind Teacher Layoffs" (2011); D. Boyd, H. Lankford, S. Loeb, and J. Wyckoff, "Teacher Layoffs: An Empirical Illustration of Seniority v. Measures of Effectiveness", Calder Institute, July 2010, Brief 12; D. Goldhaber and R. Theobald, "Assessing the Determinants and Implications of Teacher Layoffs." Calder Institute, Working Paper 55, December 2010; C. Sepe and M. Roza, "The Disproportionate Impact of Seniority-Based Layoffs on Poor, Minority Students." Center on Reinventing Public Education, May 2010.