The state should require teacher preparation programs to admit only candidates with strong academic records and support programs to encourage greater numbers of qualified individuals of color to become teachers. This goal was ungraded in 2020.
GPA/Testing Requirement: New Jersey requires a cohort average GPA of 3.0 at the program level and an individual GPA of 2.75 for admission into a traditional teacher preparation program.
New Jersey requires prospective teachers to pass a basic skills test (Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators) as a criterion for admission to traditional teacher preparation programs. Although the state sets the minimum score for this test, it is normed only to the prospective teacher population. Candidates can also qualify for admission to traditional preparation programs with sufficient scores on the SAT, ACT or GRE.
Additional Requirements: New Jersey requires all teacher preparation programs housed in institutions of higher education to obtain CAEP accreditation. Although meeting CAEP accreditation standards ensures a certain degree of proficiency, CAEP delays verification of a student's academic ability until graduation, rather than at the time of admission. However, New Jersey state law still requires candidates to demonstrate academic aptitude at the point of admission to all teacher preparation programs.
Diversity Programs: In 2018, New Jersey created the "Diversifying the Teacher Pipeline" grant program. Two grants were awarded to Montclair State University and Rutger's University. These grants are "one part of an overall initiative in which the NJDOE is committed to working with stakeholders to collectively build strategies to diversify the education workforce." With these grants, Rutgers University launched the "Diverse Teachers for Diverse Students" program to "expand the representation of black and Latinx teachers in K-12 classrooms..." Montclair State University offers funding and support for aspiring teachers of color through their "Future Teachers of Color Program". The university also seeks to attract high school students to the teaching profession through the Red Hawks Rising program. The state also held a "Diversifying the Teacher Workforce Convening with educator preparation programs in New Jersey to raise awareness and share promising practices regarding the need for increased diversity.
Test Requirements: https://nj.gov/education/license/1112.pdf GPA Requirements for New Jersey Teacher Candidates: https://nj.gov/education/license/gpa.htm New Jersey Administrative Code 6A:9A-3.1(c) and 6A:9B-8. January 8, 2019 Press Release The NJDOE has launched an initiative to diversify the teacher pipeline. Press release- https://www.state.nj.us/education/news/2019/Murphy%20Administration%20Announces%20Grants%20to%20Encourage%20Teacher%20Diversity.pdf Rutgers University Diverse Teachers for Diverse Students https://cesp.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/DTDS_Brochure_4_0.pdf Montclair State University https://www.montclair.edu/center-of-pedagogy/teachers-of-color-grant-opportunities/newark-teacher-project/
Require that teacher preparation programs screen candidates for academic proficiency prior to admission using sufficiently rigorous criteria.
Teacher preparation programs that do not screen candidates invest considerable resources in individuals who may not be able to successfully complete the program, pass licensing tests, and ultimately succeed in the classroom. Candidates in need of additional support should complete remediation before entering the program to avoid the possibility of an unsuccessful investment of significant public resources. New Jersey should require candidates to pass a test of academic proficiency that assesses reading, mathematics, and writing and that is normed to the general college-going population prior to program admission. Alternatively, the state could require a minimum grade point average of at least 3.0 for individuals or 3.2 for cohorts of accepted candidates in order to establish that prospective teachers have a strong academic history.
Consider requiring candidates to pass subject-matter tests as a condition of admission into teacher programs.
In addition to ensuring that programs require a measure of academic performance for admission, New Jersey may also consider requiring subject-matter testing prior to program admission, rather than at the point of program completion. Doing so would provide candidates lacking sufficient subject-matter expertise with an opportunity to remedy deficits prior to entering formal preparation.
New Jersey was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts necessary for this analysis.
Evidence is strong that countries whose students consistently outperform U.S. students set a much higher bar for entry to teacher preparation programs than what is typically found in the United States. Far from the top third or even top tenth to which more selective countries limit candidates, most states do not even aim for the top 50 percent. Previous analysis has shown that many states do not require that preparation programs evaluate candidates' academic proficiency as a condition of admission to teacher preparation at all; most others set a low bar by requiring basic skills tests that generally assess middle school-level skills or by requiring a minimum GPA, but too few demand at least a 3.0.
In addition to the low skill level tested by current basic skills tests (e.g., the Praxis Core), another concern is that they are normed only to the prospective teacher population, which does not allow for comparability between prospective teachers and the entire college-bound population. Tests normed to the general college-bound population would shine a clearer light on the academic proficiency of those admitted to teacher preparation programs and allow programs to be truly selective.
While a positive start, CAEP standards are no substitute for states' own policies. CAEP's standards require that the group average performance on nationally normed ability assessments such as ACT, SAT, or GRE be in the top 50th percentile. However, CAEP allows programs the unnecessary freedom to determine whether the minimum criteria will be measured prior to admissions or at some point during the program. Clear state admission policies would send an unequivocal message to programs about the state's expectations for high admissions standards.
Research is clear about the positive effects of teachers with stronger academic backgrounds on student achievement. Higher teacher selectivity, as measured by factors such as SAT/ACT scores, GPA prior to program admission, and an institute of higher education's (IHE) general competitiveness or selectivity, has a significant, positive correlation with student achievement. Some studies support higher academic admissions standards for entry into TPPs, including studies showing a relationship between student achievement and teachers' verbal ability or selectivity of the teachers' college. Although research supports applying greater selectivity when admitting teacher candidates, some recent work has found no correlation between teachers' scores on tests normed to the general college-bound population (e.g., SAT, ACT) or IHE selectivity and student achievement.
States should support increased diversity in the teacher pipeline, in addition to maintaining high admissions standards for teacher preparation programs. Recent data show that 49 percent of students in the US were students of color, while only 17 percent of teachers were teachers of color. Twenty-eight states had gaps between the percentage of students and educators of color that were greater than 25 percentage points. A growing body of research suggests that students of color—students who often face the largest achievement gaps—benefit from having same-race teachers. Exposure to same-race teachers positively benefits student achievement, teachers' expectations and perceptions of students, teachers' assessments and perceptions of student behavior, students' rates of suspension and expulsion, students' assignment to Gifted and Talented programs, and students' perceptions of teachers. Some research suggests that teachers of the same race as their students are more likely to reduce high-school dropout rates as well as increase student attendance and college attendance intent, and improve discipline. Moreover, white students report that they favor teachers of color.