The state should ensure that middle school teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
New Hampshire offers a middle school (grades 5-8) license for middle school teachers and allows teachers with secondary certificates to teach single subjects. Regrettably, the state also allows middle school teachers to teach on a generalist K-8 license.
All new middle school teachers in New Hampshire are also required to pass a Praxis II subject-matter test to attain licensure. However, because the state allows middle school teachers to teach on a generalist license, these candidates are only required to pass the content test for elementary education. Although subscores are provided, this assessment does not adequately assess the content knowledge required of middle school teachers. All other candidates may either pass a single-subject content test or earn a master's degree or higher in the subject area. Therefore, there is no assurance that these middle school teachers will have sufficient knowledge in each subject they teach.
Praxis Test Requirement www.ets.org Administrative Rules for Education 507.11; -.241; -.25; -.271; -.28; 513.01
Require content testing in all core areas.
New Hampshire should require subject-matter testing for all middle school teacher candidates in every core academic area they intend to teach as a condition of initial licensure. To ensure meaningful middle school content tests, the state should set its passing scores to reflect high levels of performance.
Eliminate the generalist license.
New Hampshire should not allow middle school teachers to teach on a generalist license that does not differentiate between the preparation of middle school teachers and that of elementary teachers. These teachers are less likely to be adequately prepared to teach core academic areas at the middle school level because their preparation requirements are not specific to the middle or secondary levels and they need not pass a subject-matter test in each subject they teach. Adopting middle school teacher preparation policies for all such teachers will help ensure that students in grades 7 and 8 have teachers who are appropriately prepared to teach grade-level content, which is different and more advanced than what elementary teachers teach.
Encourage middle school teachers licensed to teach multiple subjects to earn two subject-matter minors.
This would allow candidates to gain sufficient knowledge to pass state licensing tests, and it would increase schools' staffing flexibility. However, middle school candidates in New Hampshire who intend to teach a single subject should earn a major in that area.
Close the loophole that allows teachers to add middle grade levels to an existing license without demonstrating content knowledge.
New Hampshire allows teachers to add middle school areas to a certificate with either a passing score on a content test or a master's degree or higher. The state is urged to require that all teachers who add the middle grade levels to their certificates pass a rigorous subject-matter test to ensure content knowledge of all subject areas before they are allowed in the classroom.
New Hampshire was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced this analysis. The state added that elementary teachers are not exempted from the Praxis II multisubject test if they have a master's degree. For grades 7 and 8, a subject-area test or a demonstration of content knowledge is required for highly qualified status in each core content area.
New Hampshire also noted that it is in the process of changing its K-8 licensure requirement to limit the endorsement to candidates with one specialty area who pass the Praxis II in that content area. Without the specialty content area, candidates will only be issued a K-6 endorsement. This new administrative rule went to the Board in August for initial review, which began the formal rule-making process.
NCTQ looks forward to reviewing the state's progress in future editions of the Yearbook.
States must differentiate middle school teacher preparation from that of elementary teachers.
Middle school grades are critical years of schooling. It is in these years that far too many students fall through the cracks. However, requirements for the preparation and licensure of middle school teachers are among the weakest state policies. Too many states fail to distinguish the knowledge and skills needed by middle school teachers from those needed by an elementary teacher. Whether teaching a single subject in a departmentalized setting or teaching multiple subjects in a self-contained setting, middle school teachers must be able to teach significantly more advanced content than elementary teachers do. The notion that someone should be identically prepared to teach first grade or eighth grade mathematics seems ridiculous, but states that license teachers on a K-8 generalist certificate essentially endorse this idea.
Approved programs should prepare middle school teacher candidates to be qualified to teach two subject areas.
Since current federal law requires most aspiring middle school teachers to have a major or pass a test in each teaching field, the law would appear to preclude them from teaching more than one subject. However, middle school teacher candidates could instead earn two subject-area minors, gaining sufficient knowledge to pass state licensing tests and be highly qualified in both subjects. This policy would increase schools' staffing flexibility, especially since teachers seem to show little interest in taking tests to earn highly qualified teaching status in a second subject once they are in the classroom. This only applies to middle school teachers who intend to teach multiple subjects. States must ensure that middle school teachers licensed only to teach one subject area have a strong academic background in that area.
Middle School Teacher Preparation: Supporting Research
A report published by the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP) concludes that a teacher's knowledge of math makes a difference in student achievement. U.S. Department of Education. Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (2008).
For additional research on the importance of subject matter knowledge, see T. Dee and S. Cohodes, "Out-of-Field Teachers and Student Achievement: Evidence from Matched-Pairs Comparisons." Public Finance Review, Volume 36, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 7-32; B. Chaney, "Student outcomes and the professional preparation of eighth-grade teachers in science and mathematics," in NSF/NELS:88 Teacher transcript analysis, 1995, ERIC, ED389530, 112 p.; H. Wenglinsky, How Teaching Matters: Bringing the Classroom Back Into Discussions of Teacher Quality (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2000).
For information on the "ceiling effect," see D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "When should we reward degrees for teachers?" in Phi Delta Kappan, Volume 80, No. 2, October 1998, pp. 134, 136-138.