The state should ensure that secondary teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
Maryland does not ensure that all secondary teachers are adequately prepared to teach grade-level content.
Maryland requires that its secondary teacher candidates pass a Praxis II content test to teach any core secondary subjects. Unfortunately, Maryland permits a significant loophole to this important policy by allowing both combination science and general social studies licenses, without requiring subject-matter testing for each subject area within these disciplines (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
To add an additional subject or field to a secondary license, teachers in Maryland may either complete coursework requirements (up to 30 credits, depending on the area) or submit a passing score on a content test.
Testing Information http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/divisions/certification/certification_branch/testing_information/testing_info_general Adding Endorsement http://www.msde.maryland.gov/MSDE/divisions/certification/certification_branch/faq
Require subject-matter testing for all secondary teacher candidates.
Maryland wisely requires subject-matter tests for most secondary teachers but should address any loopholes that undermine this policy (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
Require subject-matter testing when adding subject-area endorsements.
Maryland should require passing scores on subject-specific content tests, regardless of other coursework or degree requirements, for teachers who are licensed in core secondary subjects and wish to add another subject area, or endorsement, to their licenses. While coursework may be generally indicative of background in a particular subject area, only a subject-matter test ensures that teachers know the specific content they will need to teach.
Maryland recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
Research studies have demonstrated the positive impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement. For example, see D. Goldhaber, "Everyone's Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" Journal of Human Resources, vol. XLII no.4 (2007). See also Harris, D., and Sass, T., "Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement." Teacher Quality Research (2007).Evidence can also be found in White, Pressely, DeAngelis "Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois" Illinois Education Research Council (2008); D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Does teacher certification matter? High School Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 22: 129-145. (2000); and D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity." Journal of Human Resources (1998).