Teacher and Principal Evaluation Policy
The state should have a data system that contributes some of the evidence needed to assess teacher effectiveness. The bar for this goal was raised in 2017.
Teacher of Record: Maryland defines teacher of record as "the teacher(s) most directly responsible for the instruction of the student." According to the state's evaluation guidebook: "Maryland does not have a definition of this designation within statute or regulation.
The [district] must bring judgment to this determination. The Teacher of Record must provide direct instruction to the student for the preponderance of the academic period of interest."
Teacher Roster Verification:Maryland does not have a process in place for teacher roster verification.
Linking Student-Level Data and Teacher Performance:Maryland's Longitudinal Data System must "facilitate and enable the linkage of student data and workforce data." However, it does not appear that the system has the capacity to link student-level data and teacher performance.
Teacher Mobility Data: Maryland does not track teacher mobility data and make it publicly available.
Evaluation Guidebook http://archives.marylandpublicschools.org/tpe/TPE_Guidance_Version3_092013.pdf Maryland Code 190-24-701
Institute a process for teacher roster verification.
Maryland should clearly articulate a process for teacher roster verification. This is of particular importance for using the data system to provide evidence of teacher effectiveness.
Link student-level data to teacher effectiveness.
Maryland should ensure that it has a longitudinal student data system with the capacity to link student-level data to teacher performance, consistent with applicable privacy constraints. This will allow the state to identify whether certain groups of students are being systemically underserved by ineffective teachers.
Track teacher mobility data and make it publicly available.
Maryland should not only track teacher mobility data at both the state and district levels, but it should also make these data publicly available, consistent with applicable privacy constraints. Providing detailed analyses of teacher mobility and attrition will help provide a clearer picture of Maryland's teaching force.
Maryland was helpful in providing NCTQ with the facts necessary for this analysis. The state added that the teacher roster verification process is usually tied to teacher/principal evaluations, and Maryland does not calculate at the state level.
Maryland added that while it does not have a definition for "teacher of record," Annotated Code of Maryland 638-7-119 does state that "classroom teacher" means a teacher who is primarily responsible and accountable for the students in that class. The state further noted that it does not have a state process in place for teacher roster verification because the local education agencies calculate teacher effectiveness. The Annotated Code of Maryland 638-7-119 requires the state to have a process in place to facilitate and enable the linkage of student data and teacher data. Starting with the school year 2011-2012, Maryland has collected and reported on class size information by elementary, middle, and high schools.
7E: Data Systems Needed for Evaluation
It is an inefficient use of resources for individual districts to build their own data systems for value-added analyses. States need to take the lead and provide districts with state-level data that can be used not only for the purpose of measuring teacher effectiveness, but also to track teacher mobility across the state. As such, multiple years of data are necessary to enable meaningful determinations of teacher effectiveness and to identify staffing trends.
Teacher effectiveness analysis, including teachers' value-added measures, requires both student and teacher identifiers and the ability to match test records over time. Such data are useful not just for teacher evaluation, but also to measure overall school performance and the performance of teacher preparation programs.
States need to have some advanced elements in place in order to apply data from the state data system fairly and accurately to teacher evaluations. Each state must have a clear definition of "teacher of record" that connects teachers to the students they actually instruct and not just students who may be in a teacher's homeroom or for whom the teacher performs administrative but not instructional duties. There should also be in place a process for roster verification, ideally occurring multiple times a year, to ensure that students and teachers are accurately matched. Systems should also have the ability to connect multiple educators to a single student. While states may establish different business rules for such situations, what is important is that the mechanism exists, in recognition of the many possible permutations of student and teacher assignments.
Additional elements are needed to use data to assess teacher supply and demand. For example, states should include in their data systems means of tracking when teachers leave schools or districts, as well as when they re-enter new ones, and should make these data publicly available. These data can support the state's effort to build a cohesive picture of the state's teacher labor market and workforce needs.