Teacher Preparation Policy
The state should inform district hiring needs with key teacher supply and demand data and make teacher mobility data publicly available at the district level. This goal was reorganized in 2021.
Teacher Production Data: Delaware publishes Educator Program Scorecards, which include the number of graduates from the previous year for each program. The state also publishes an annual report entitled, Excellent Educators Report, which includes data on overall teacher hiring statistics that are primarily geared toward examining teacher hiring practices, recruitment strategies and incentives, and reasons for vacancies and shortage areas. However, no connection is made between teacher production and district-level hiring statistics, making these reports an incomplete analysis of teacher production in Delaware.
Teacher mobility data: Delaware tracks teacher mobility data and makes this data publicly available via the Delaware Report Card and Open Data Portal. Data is available at the state, district, and school-level for early career, experienced, and all teachers. Additionally, Delaware tracks and provides four different mobility types: same school retention rate, transfer rate within district, transfer rate between districts, and turnover rate. Retention rates are available for one, two, three, four, and five years.
Delaware Excellent Educators Report https://www.doe.k12.de.us/cms/lib/DE01922744/Centricity/Domain/546/2019_Delaware%20Excellent%20Educators_Final%20Report.pdf Educator Program Scorecards http://www.doe.k12.de.us/domain/398 Open Data Portal – Teacher Mobility View https://data.delaware.gov/Education/Teacher-Mobility-by-Year-Organization-and-Experien/9jmm-8qm7
Publish data that connect program supply data to district-level demand data.
Teacher preparation programs graduate more candidates each year than actually earn certification, and only some of those certified are ultimately hired to teach in the state. It is certainly desirable to produce a large enough pool to provide districts a choice in hiring, but a substantial oversupply of teacher candidates in some teaching areas serves neither the profession nor the students well. Delaware is on the right track publishing data on teacher production. However, the state should strive to collect a rich set of data that can inform policy decisions, including district hiring data by certification, ethnicity and gender. These data can then be used to determine, when connected with teacher program data, teacher shortage and surplus areas.
Delaware was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts necessary for this analysis.
1B: Teacher Shortages and Surpluses
It is an inefficient use of resources for individual districts to build their own data systems for tracking teachers. States need to take the lead and provide districts with state-level data that can be used not only for the purpose of measuring teacher effectiveness, but also to gauge the supply and demand of teachers in the state. Furthermore, multiple years of data are necessary to identify staffing trends.
Many preparation programs graduate people who are certified to teach but do not get jobs in the classroom. Often times, this is because these teachers pursue certifications in areas that already have a surplus of teachers (e.g., elementary education), while districts struggle to find applicants to hire in other areas (e.g., special education, science). Given this misalignment between the teachers that teacher preparation programs produce and the hiring needs of school districts, the state should step in to establish a cohesive data reporting system. By creating reports that publicly delineate the number of teachers produced by each teacher preparation program (and therefore by certification area), the state will be better able to identify instances where the production of teachers does not match districts' needs.
Furthermore, the state should consider whether teacher preparation programs are supplying districts with the teachers they need when approving or re-approving programs. Teacher preparation programs exist primarily to prepare teachers for public school positions (approximately 88 percent of teachers work in public schools). If teacher preparation programs produce far more teachers than the state needs in some certification areas and far too few in others, the programs are failing to meeting their state's demand. Moreover, student teaching placements (which tend to be near candidates' teacher prep programs) are highly predictive of where candidates will get their first teaching jobs, therefore also allowing states the ability to predict which open positions are likely to be filled. Given that the preparation program's function is to supply the nearby area (and more generally, the state) with public school teachers, it is incumbent upon the state to make sure the program fulfills that responsibility, particularly through the collection and application of data on teacher production numbers and district demand.
Additional elements are needed to use data to assess teacher supply and demand. For example, states should include in their data systems means of tracking when teachers leave schools or districts, as well as when they re-enter new ones, and should make these data publicly available. These data can support the state's effort to build a cohesive picture of the state's teacher labor market and workforce needs.