Mathematics: Arizona

Delivering Well Prepared Teachers Policy

Arizona now requires all elementary teacher candidates to pass the NES Elementary Education content test, which consists of two separately scored subtests. Mathematics counts for 50 percent of subtest two and is combined with other subject areas, specifically, science and the arts, health and fitness. Because the test does not report a specific math score, a teacher candidate could answer many math questions incorrectly and still pass the test.

Regrettably, Arizona's early childhood education teachers, who are allowed to teach through grade 3, are not required to pass a content test.

The framework for Arizona's newly adopted test covers numbers and operations, data analysis, and basic concepts of geometry and algebra. However, the standards are not specifically geared to meet the needs of elementary teachers.

**Require all teacher candidates who teach elementary grades to pass a rigorous mathematics assessment.**

Although Arizona is on the right track in requiring an elementary assessment with subtests, the state's efforts fall short by combining math with other subjects and not reporting a specific subscore for math. Arizona should strengthen its policy by testing mathematics content with a rigorous assessment tool, such as the test required in Massachusetts that evaluates mathematics knowledge beyond an elementary school level and challenges candidates' understanding of underlying mathematics concepts. Such a test could also be used to allow candidates to test out of coursework requirements. Teacher candidates who lack minimum mathematics knowledge should not be eligible for licensure.

Arizona should also ensure that early childhood education teacher candidates who teach its elementary grades possess the requisite knowledge of mathematics before entering the classroom. Therefore, the state should require the candidates to earn a passing score on the same test as other elementary teachers or a comparably rigorous one geared to early childhood mathematics content.

**Require teacher preparation programs to provide mathematics content specifically geared to the needs of elementary teachers.**

Arizona must ensure that new teachers are prepared to
teach the mathematics content required by the Common Core State Standards. Although Arizona's subject-matter test requires some knowledge in key areas of
mathematics, the state should require teacher preparation programs to provide
mathematics content specifically geared to the needs of elementary teachers.
This includes specific coursework in foundations, algebra and geometry, with
some statistics coursework.

Arizona recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.

- Admission into Teacher Preparation
- Elementary Teacher Preparation
- Elementary Teacher Preparation in Reading Instruction
- Elementary Teacher Preparation in Mathematics
- Middle School Teacher Preparation
- Secondary Teacher Preparation
- Secondary Teacher Preparation in Science
- Special Education Teacher Preparation
- Assessing Professional Knowledge
- Student Teaching
- Teacher Preparation Program Accountability

- State Data Systems
- Evaluation of Effectiveness
- Frequency of Evaluations
- Tenure
- Licensure Advancement
- Equitable Distribution

**Required math
coursework should be tailored in both design and delivery to the unique needs
of the elementary teacher.**

Aspiring elementary teachers must begin to acquire a deep conceptual knowledge of the mathematics that they will teach, moving well beyond mere procedural understanding. Their training should focus on the critical areas of numbers and operations; algebra; geometry and, to a lesser degree, data analysis and probability.

To ensure that elementary teachers are well trained to teach the essential subject of mathematics, states must require teacher preparation programs to cover these four areas in coursework that it specially designed for prospective elementary teachers. Leading mathematicians and math educators have found that elementary teachers are not well served by courses designed for a general audience and that methods courses also do not provide sufficient preparation. According to Dr. Roger Howe, a mathematician at Yale University: "Future teachers do not need so much to learn more mathematics, as to reshape what they already know."

Most states' policies do not require preparation in
mathematics of appropriate breadth and depth and specific to the needs of the
elementary teacher. NCTQ's reports on teacher preparation, beginning with *No Common Denominator: The Preparation of
Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools* in 2008
and continuing through the *Teacher Prep
Review *in 2013 have consistently found few teacher preparation programs across
the country providing high-quality preparation in mathematics. Whether through
standards or coursework requirements, states must ensure that their preparation
programs graduate only teacher candidates who are well prepared to teach
mathematics.

**Many state tests
offer no assurance that teachers are prepared to teach mathematics.**

An increasing number of states require passage of a mathematics subtest as a condition of licensure., but many states still rely on subject-matter tests that include some items (or even a whole section) on mathematics instruction. However, since subject-specific passing scores are not required, one need not know much mathematics in order to pass. In fact, one could answer every mathematics question incorrectly and still pass. States need to ensure that it is not possible to pass a licensure test that purportedly covers mathematics without knowing the critical material.

The content of these tests poses another issue: these tests should properly test elementary and middle school content but not at an elementary or middle school level. Instead, problems should challenge the teacher candidate's understanding of underlying concepts and apply knowledge in nonroutine, multistep procedures. Unfortunately, this is not the case in the tests currently in use in most states. The test required by Massachusetts remains the standard bearer for a high quality, rigorous assessment for elementary teachers entirely and solely focused on mathematics.

**Elementary Teacher Preparation in Mathematics: Supporting Research**

For
evidence that new teachers are not appropriately prepared to teach mathematics,
see NCTQ,* No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers
in Mathematics by America's Education Schools* (2008) at:http://www.nctq.org/p/publications/docs/nctq_ttmath_fullreport_20090603062928.pdf

For information on the mathematics content elementary teachers need to know, see National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, "Highly Qualified Teachers: A Position of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics," (July 2005). See also Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, The Mathematical Education of Teachers, Issues in Mathematics, Vol. 11, (American Mathematical Society in cooperation with the Mathematical Association of America, 2001), p. 8.

For
evidence on the benefits of math content knowledge on student achievement, see S. Kukla-Acevedo "Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement." *Economics of Education Review*, Volume 28, 2009, pp. 49-57; H. Hill, B. Rowan
and D. Ball "Effects of Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on Student Achievement," *American
Educational Research Journal, *Volume 42, No. 2, Summer 2005, pp. 371-406.

For information on where states set passing scores on elementary level content tests for teacher licensing across the U.S., see chart on p. 13 of NCTQ "Recommendations for the Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Removing the Roadblocks: How Federal Policy Can Cultivate Effective Teachers," (2011).