The state should ensure that secondary teachers are sufficiently prepared to teach appropriate grade-level content.
Arkansas requires that its secondary teacher candidates pass a Praxis II content test to teach any core secondary subjects. Unfortunately, Arkansas permits a significant loophole to this important policy by allowing both general science and general social studies licenses, without requiring subject-matter testing for each subject area within these disciplines (see Goals 1-G and 1-H).
Further, to add an additional field to either the three-year initial or standard secondary license, teachers must also pass a Praxis II content test. In addition, those teachers adding secondary social studies must also complete a three-hour course in Arkansas history. However, as stated above, Arkansas cannot guarantee content knowledge in each specific subject for those secondary teachers who add the combination science or general social studies endorsements.
Testing Requirements http://arkansased.org/educators/pdf/licensure/praxis_series_testing_111010.pdf Adding an Area of Licensure to an Existing Arkansas License http://www.ade.az.gov/certification/requirements/TeachingCerts/RequirementsforSecondaryCertificate.pdf
Require subject-matter testing for all secondary teacher candidates.
Arkansas wisely requires subject-matter tests for most secondary teachers but should address any loopholes that undermine this policy (see Goals 1-G and 1-H). This applies to the addition of endorsements as well.
Arkansas recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
Research studies have demonstrated the positive impact of teacher content knowledge on student achievement. For example, see D. Goldhaber, "Everyone's Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" Journal of Human Resources, vol. XLII no.4 (2007). See also Harris, D., and Sass, T., "Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement." Teacher Quality Research (2007).Evidence can also be found in White, Pressely, DeAngelis "Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois" Illinois Education Research Council (2008); D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Does teacher certification matter? High School Certification Status and Student Achievement." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 22: 129-145. (2000); and D. Goldhaber and D. Brewer, "Why Don't Schools and Teachers Seem to Matter? Assessing the impact of Unobservables on Educational Productivity." Journal of Human Resources (1998).