Licensure Advancement : Alaska

2011 Identifying Effective Teachers Policy


The state should base licensure advancement on evidence of teacher effectiveness.

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Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2011). Licensure Advancement : Alaska results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from:

Analysis of Alaska's policies

Alaska's requirements for licensure advancement and renewal are not based on evidence of teacher effectiveness. 

Teacher certification in Alaska is a three-tiered system consisting of Initial, Professional and Master certification. To advance from the Initial Teacher Certificate (valid for three years and nonrenewable) to the Professional Teacher Certificate (valid for five years and renewable), the state requires that teachers pass a competency examination if they have not yet met this requirement as of the date of the Initial Teacher Certificate as well as a Praxis II content area examination. They must also complete three semester hours in Alaska studies and three semester hours in multicultural education or cross-cultural communications. During the period of the Initial Certificate, teachers must complete an accepted teacher education program. Finally, as determined by each department, teachers must complete any additional academic training deemed "necessary for personal development." To earn the state's optional Master Certificate, teachers must receive National Board certification. 

All teachers initially certified September 1, 2006 and beyond must also complete the Alaska Teacher Performance Review in order to attain Professional certification. The Alaska Teacher Performance Review consists of a 45-minute videotaped lesson along with supporting documentation. The performance reviews are scored by the state office based on set performance standards.

Alaska does not require that teachers demonstrate effectiveness in order to renew a professional license.  The state requires that teachers earn 6 credits from a regionally accredited university for renewal or reinstatement of a regular five-year certificate.  


Recommendations for Alaska

Require evidence of effectiveness as a part of teacher licensing policy.
Alaska should require evidence of effectiveness to be a factor in determining whether teachers can renew their licenses or advance to a higher-level license. While the requirement to present evidence of classroom performance may be a step in the right direction, the state should consider additional requirements that base professional licensure on evidence of teacher effectiveness as measured by objective evidence of student achievement.

Discontinue licensure requirements with no direct connection to classroom effectiveness.
Alaska's stipulation regarding academic training deemed necessary for personal development is vague and leaves the door open for requiring unwarranted coursework. While some targeted requirements may potentially expand teacher knowledge and improve teacher practice, Alaska's coursework requirements do not correlate with teacher effectiveness.

Require teachers to pass content knowledge assessments as a condition of initial licensing, not advanced licensing.
Alaska places students at risk by requiring passage of both basic and subject-area licensure tests to attain professional licensure rather than for an initial license. The state's policy allows teachers who may not be able to pass basic skills or content knowledge tests to teach for three years on an initial license.

State response to our analysis

Alaska recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.

How we graded

The reason for probationary licensure should be to determine teacher effectiveness.

Most states grant new teachers a probationary license that must later be converted to an advanced or professional license. A probationary period is sound policy as it provides an opportunity to determine whether individuals merit professional licensure. However, very few states require any determination of teacher performance or effectiveness in deciding whether a teacher will advance from the probationary license. Instead, states generally require probationary teachers to fulfill a set of requirements to receive advanced certification. Thus, ending the probationary period is based on whether a checklist has been completed rather than on teacher performance and effectiveness.

Most state requirements for achieving professional certification have not been shown to affect teacher effectiveness.

Unfortunately, not only do most states fail to connect advanced certification to actual evidence of teacher effectiveness, but also the requirements teachers must most often meet are not even related to teacher effectiveness. The most common requirement for professional licensure is completion of additional coursework, often resulting in a master's degree. Requiring teachers to obtain additional training in their teaching area would be meaningful; however, the requirements are usually vague, allowing the teacher to fulfill coursework requirements from long menus that include areas having no connection or use to the teacher in the classroom. The research evidence on requiring a master's degree is quite conclusive: These degrees have not been shown to make teachers more effective. This is likely due in no small part to the fact that teachers generally do not attain master's degrees in their subject areas. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, less than one-fourth of secondary teachers' master's degrees are in their subject area, and only seven percent of elementary teachers' master's degrees are in an academic subject.

In addition to their dubious value, these requirements may also serve as a disincentive to teacher retention. Talented probationary teachers may be unwilling to invest time and resources in more education coursework. Further, they may well pursue advanced degrees that facilitate leaving teaching.

Research rationale

For a meta-analysis of the research on the relationship between advanced degrees and teacher effectiveness, see Metin and Stevenson, "The Impact of Teachers' Advanced Degrees on Student Learning" which has been published as an appendix in Arizona's Race to the Top: What Will It Take to Compete? (NCTQ, 2009). 

Studies in the analysis include: Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2004) Teacher sorting, teacher shopping, and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2006) Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from the National Bureau of Economic Research web site:; Clotfelter, C. T. Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2007) How and why do teacher credentials matter for student achievement? Ehrenberg, R. G., & Brewer, D. J. (1994) Do school and teacher characteristics matter? Evidence from high school and beyond. Economics of Education Review, 13, 1-17; Goldhaber, D., & Anthony, E. (2007) Can teacher quality be effectively assessed? National board certification as a signal of effective teaching. Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1), 134-150; Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (1997) Why don't schools and teachers seem to matter? Assessing the impact of unobservables on educational productivity. The Journal of Human Resources, 3, 505-523; Goldhaber, D. & Brewer, D. J. (2000) Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational and Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(2), 129-145; Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., O'Brien, D. M., & Rivkin, S. G. (2005) The market for teacher quality. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from the National Bureau of Economic Research web site:; Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., & Rivkin, S. G. (1998) Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from the National Bureau of Economic Research web site:; Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2006) Value-added models and the measurement of teacher quality. Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2007a) What makes for a good teacher and who can tell? Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2007b) Teacher training, teacher quality, and student achievement. Retrieved May 20, 2009 from the National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research web site:; Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2008) The effects of NBPTS-certified teachers on student achievement. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research; Jeptson, C. (2005) Teacher characteristics and student achievement: Evidence from teacher surveys. Journal of Urban Economics, 57,302-319; Monk, D. H. (1994) Subject area preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. Economics of Educational Review, 13, 125-145; Riordan, J. (2006, April) Is there a relationship between No Child Left Behind indicators of teacher quality and the cognitive and social development of early elementary students? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, San Francisco, CA; Schneider, B. L. (1985) Further evidence of school effects. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 351-356.

For evidence on the lack of correlation between education coursework and teacher effectiveness, see M.B. Allen, "Eight Questions on Teacher Preparation: What Does the Research Say?" Education Commission of the States, (2003) at: