Five core components of reading

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Phonemic awareness: The ability to focus on and manipulate the individual phonemes in spoken words.

Phonics: The relationship between the sound of spoken words and the individual letters or groups of letters representing those sounds in written words.

Fluency: The ability to read a text accurately and quickly while using phrasing and emphasis to make what is read sound like spoken language.

Vocabulary: Knowledge about the meanings, uses, and pronunciation of words.

Comprehension: Constructing meaning that is reasonable and accurate by connecting what has been read to what the reader already knows and thinking about all of this information.

For more on the research supporting each of these components, see page 55 of the TPR Reading Technical Report.