2017 General Teacher Prep Programs Policy
The state should ensure that its teacher preparation programs provide early childhood teachers with age-appropriate content knowledge and instructional strategies. This goal was new in 2017 and was not graded.
Ohio's early childhood education certification is the state's de facto elementary license to teach grades PreK-3. Candidates are required to take the Ohio Assessments for Educators (OAE) Early Childhood Education test as well as the Foundations of Reading test. (For a discussion on these requirements as they pertain to elementary teachers please see 2-A: Elementary Content Knowledge.)
The state also offers a preschool associate's license, which authorizes the teacher to work with students ages three to five. There are no content test requirements for this license.
Emergent Literacy and Oral Language: The OAE Early Childhood Education test references the main concepts of emergent literacy, requiring candidates to "apply knowledge of the role of phonological or phonemic awareness" and demonstrate knowledge of "concepts about print, the alphabetic principle and spelling development." The test also requires understanding "instruction in reading and reading comprehension for children from birth through age 8." Candidates demonstrate competence in this concept by demonstrating knowledge of phonics, word identification strategies, the role of fluency, and various reading comprehension strategies. With regard to oral language, the (OAE) Early Childhood Education test requires that early childhood candidates: "Understand oral language development and how to promote listening and speaking skills in children from birth through age 8." Requirements under this section include early childhood education candidates' ability to:
Ohio Assessment for Educators www.oh.nesinc.com Ohio Administrative Code 3301-24-03
Ensure that all preschool teachers possess sufficient knowledge of emergent literacy and oral language.
Ohio should—either through teacher preparation standards or test frameworks—ensure that all preschool teachers (including preschool associate candidates) understand how to develop children's oral language skills and build children's emergent literacy. This understanding is important because of the critical role that preschool teachers play in language development.
Ensure that all preschool teachers possess sufficient knowledge of emergent mathematics and science.
Ohio should—either through teacher preparation standards or test frameworks—ensure that all preschool teachers (including preschool associate candidates) understand how to introduce and develop children's mathematical skills and effectively introduce science concepts. This understanding is crucial because early introduction to complex mathematical concepts can affect later achievement in mathematics.
Ensure that all preschool teachers possess sufficient knowledge of the main developmental stages from birth through age eight.
Ohio should ensure—either through testing or preparation standards—that all preschool teachers (including preschool associate candidates) are knowledgeable of children's developmental stages from birth through age eight. Such knowledge is essential so that all preschool teachers have an in-depth understanding of the children they are teaching.
Ensure that all preschool teachers possess the skills to create a positive and productive classroom environment.
Ohio should ensure that all preschool teachers possess adequate understanding of how to develop children's executive functioning skills, build social emotional skills and manage children's play for learning purposes. This knowledge is critically important to ensuring that all preschool teachers are able to establish an environment that actively supports learning.
Ohio recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis.
A strong preschool experience can set children up for achievement gains in elementary school, and even more critically, for improved long-term outcomes including college attendance and degree completion. However, not all preschool programs have achieved these positive results. To increase the likelihood that children will reap benefits from attending preschool, states should ensure that the preschool teachers have certain essential skills and knowledge.
To lay children's foundation for learning to read—and to open the door to other areas of learning—teachers must understand how to develop children's oral language skills and build children's emergent literacy. Especially for young children who are already behind, preschool teachers can play a critical role in language development. Emergent literacy encompasses a range of skills that are essential to reading, but may not come naturally to all children. These skills include phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, learning the alphabet, and concepts of print. Teacher training in these areas can translate into substantial gains for children in alphabet knowledge, vocabulary, and language skills. The early introduction of language and literacy can make a lasting difference for children. Unsurprisingly, children with low language and literacy skills in preschool demonstrate lower reading skills in kindergarten. However, not all approaches to teaching emergent literacy are equally effective, and the quality of preschool curricula varies, making it that much more important that preschool teachers have ample training in how to develop their preschoolers' emergent literacy skills.
Preschool teachers need similar grounding in teaching emergent math and science concepts. Research finds that introducing children to more complex mathematical concepts from an early age may increase their math ability in later years. In fact, some research suggests that the relationship between children's early math skills and future math achievement is twice as strong as the relationship between emergent literacy and future reading achievement. Little research exists on what teachers need to know about preschool science instruction, but experts agree that this area is important.
Beyond knowing what to teach, preschool teachers need to understand the children they are teaching. As such, knowledge of child development from birth to age eight is important. Similarly, preschool teachers need to know effective classroom management strategies that can build social-emotional skills and prevent or resolve many behavioral problems. Of course, classroom management is about more than discipline: it is about establishing an environment that actively supports learning, including understanding how to develop children's executive functioning skills and manage children's play for learning purposes. Teachers' emotional support for their students is associated with better social competence and lower rates of behavior problems.