Elementary Teacher Preparation Policy
The state should ensure that new teachers who are licensed to teach elementary grades under an early childhood license demonstrate sufficient content knowledge in all core subjects and know the science of reading instruction. This goal has been revised since 2017.
Content Test Requirements: Tennessee's early childhood education teachers, who are licensed to teach elementary grades through grade 3, are required to
pass two assessments: the Praxis Elementary Education: Content Knowledge
(5018) test, which does not report separate subscores in the core content areas
of language arts, math, science, or social studies, and the Education of Young
Children (5024) test, which is not a content test.
Tennessee allows teachers to delay passage of content and pedagogy tests if they possess a bachelor's degree in a core content area.
Scientifically Based Reading Instruction—Tests and Standards: Tennessee requires a sufficient test of the science of reading instruction, the Praxis Teaching Reading: Elementary (5205) test. In its reading standards pertaining to what elementary teachers must know, Tennessee requires teacher preparation programs to address the science of reading.
Provisional and Emergency Licensure: Because provisional and emergency licensure requirements are scored in Provisional and Emergency Licensure, only the test requirements for the state's initial license are considered as part of this goal.
Praxis Test Requirement www.ets.org Tennessee State Board of Education Policy 5.502 Appendix A, page 18; 5.505
Require all early childhood candidates who are eligible to teach elementary grades to pass a subject-matter test designed to ensure sufficient content knowledge of all subjects.
Tennessee should require all early childhood education teacher candidates who teach elementary grades to pass a core content test. Although requiring a content test is a step in the right direction, the state should require separate, meaningful passing scores for each core subject covered on the test, including reading/language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. The state's current practice of using a composite passing score offers no assurance of adequate knowledge in each subject area and therefore fails to ensure that a candidate who achieves a passing score has the necessary subject-matter knowledge to teach a particular subject area.
Require teacher candidates to pass a rigorous elementary content assessment as a condition of initial licensure.
Tennessee's adoption of the Praxis Teaching Reading (5205) test is a step in the right direction. However, it is undermined by the state's policy that allows teacher candidates to delay passage of the test with a bachelor's degree in a content area.
Tennessee indicated that educators who are enrolled in a program with a job-embedded clinical practice may "allow teachers to delay
passage of content tests if they possess a bachelor's degree in a core
content area." According to the state, review of the last three years of
candidates completing preparation programs in Tennessee, showed that
roughly 27% went through a job-embedded program and a smaller percentage
of this group delayed passage of the content assessments by holding a
degree with a major in the content area.
Over the last two years, the department has engaged in a process to require all EPPs to revise content of nearly all endorsement programs to meet the expectations of the literacy standards adopted by the state board of education in 2017. Additional details regarding this process can be found at the link provided.
2D: Elementary Licensure Deficiencies
Early childhood teachers who teach elementary grades must be ready for the demands of the elementary classroom. Many states have early childhood licenses that include some elementary classroom grades, usually up to grade three. Because teachers with this early childhood license can still teach many elementary grades, they should not be held to a lower bar for subject-matter knowledge than if they held more standard elementary licenses. Given the focus on building students' content knowledge and vocabulary in college- and career-readiness standards, states would put students at risk by not holding all elementary teachers to equivalent standards. That is not to say the license requirements must be identical; there are certainly different focuses in terms of child development and pedagogy. But the idea that content knowledge is only needed by upper-grade elementary teachers is clearly false.
Focus on reading instruction is especially critical for early childhood teachers. Although some states do not ensure that any elementary teachers know the science of how to teach young children to read, in the states where this is a priority, it is inexcusable to hold elementary teachers on an early childhood license to a lower standard. Research is clear that the best defense against reading failure is effective early reading instruction. Therefore, if such licenses are neglecting to meet the needs of the early elementary classroom, of which learning to read is paramount, they are failing to meet one of their most fundamental purposes.