The state should ensure that substitute teachers are appropriately placed and assessed in the classroom. This goal was new in 2017 and was not graded.
Nevada offers two substitute licenses; an Emergency Substitute Teacher endorsement, and a special license or provisional license with a Substitute Endorsement. The Emergency Substitute Teacher endorsement requires a high school diploma or a GED. The special or provisional license with a Substitute Endorsement requires at least 60 credit hours of coursework or an associate degree. The state also allows teachers with a current license to act as substitute teachers.
Length of Assignment: Nevada permits holders of the emergency substitute license to teach for up to five days in a 20-day period in the same assignment. Substitutes with special or provisional license can teach for an unlimited number of days if the substitute is filling the position of a licensed teacher who is under contract. They can also teach for 60 days if filling a teaching position for which a licensed teacher has not been hired.
Evaluation of Long-term Substitute: Nevada does not require evaluations of substitute teachers.
NAC 391.330; .332 http://www.doe.nv.gov/Educator_Licensure/Specific_Areas_of_Licensure/
Distinguish requirements for short-term and long-term substitutes.
Nevada should distinguish between requirements for short-term and long-term substitutes so that it can ensure that its requirements are appropriate for the needs of these teachers. The state's long-term substitute requirements should be rigorous (e.g., that all long-term substitutes have current or expired licenses) to help ensure that teachers who are spending extended periods of time with students are prepared to do so.
Require long-term substitute teachers to be evaluated.
Nevada should maintain standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for licensed teachers for extended periods of time. Nevada can help ensure that substitute teachers are held to high standards and have access to the supports necessary to improve their practice by requiring evaluations - which it may find appropriate to modify from its standard, state-required teacher evaluations - of long-term substitutes.
Nevada recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis and was helpful in providing NCTQ with facts that enhanced the analysis.
Research finds that teacher absences negatively affect student achievement and growth. While some of this is attributable to the disruption of regular classroom practices and instruction, it may also be attributable to substitute teacher quality. The gap in instructional quality and daily productivity when a regular teacher is replaced by a substitute teacher is significant. However, absences covered by substitutes licensed by the state are not as detrimental to student achievement as those covered by non-licensed substitutes. Some research hypothesizes that the low-skill level and mobility of substitute teachers may contribute to the reduction in instructional focus and quality and that even when substitute teachers are good instructors, they may be unable to effectively implement a teacher of record's long-term instructional strategies. Parents, teachers, principals, and students have concerns about substitute teachers' quality and qualifications. States should maintain rigorous standards for substitute teacher quality and accountability for all substitutes, but especially for long-term substitutes who are expected to stand in for teachers for long stretches of time.