Frequency of Evaluations: Michigan

2015 Identifying Effective Teachers Policy

Goal

The state should require annual evaluations of all teachers.

Meets in part
Suggested Citation:
National Council on Teacher Quality. (2015). Frequency of Evaluations: Michigan results. State Teacher Policy Database. [Data set].
Retrieved from: https://www.nctq.org/yearbook/state/MI-Frequency-of-Evaluations-71

Analysis of Michigan's policies

All teachers in Michigan must be evaluated annually. However, the state's evaluation regulation stipulates that teachers who are rated highly effective on three consecutive evaluations may be evaluated biennially instead of annually.

Michigan also articulates that, as part of any teacher evaluation, multiple observations must be conducted. However, the state allows teachers who have received ratings of effective or highly effective on their two most recent year-end evaluations to forego multiple observations.

Teachers in their first year of the probationary period, and those who receive a rating of minimally effective or ineffective, must receive a midyear progress report, which includes feedback from observations. The state does not include any further guidance on when observations should occur with other teachers. 

Citation

Recommendations for Michigan

Require annual formal evaluations for all teachers.
All teachers in Michigan should be evaluated annually, even those who receive high ratings on previous evaluations. Rather than treated as mere formalities, these teacher evaluations should serve as important tools for rewarding good teachers, helping average teachers improve and holding weak teachers accountable for poor performance. While the state may find it practical to reduce the number of observations for its highest-performing teachers, eliminating the evaluation completely denies these teachers feedback while also suggesting that an annual evaluation is punitive in nature. 

Ensure that new teachers are observed and receive feedback early in the school year. 
Because it is critical that schools and districts closely monitor the performance of new teachers, Michigan should ensure that its new teachers get the support they need early, and that supervisors know from near the beginning of the school year which new teachers may be at risk for ineffective performance. The state's policy regarding the midyear progress report for first-year teachers is a step in the right direction, but Michigan should consider early feedback and support for the first few years that a teacher is in the classroom. 

State response to our analysis

Michigan recognized the factual accuracy of this analysis. 

How we graded

Research rationale

Annual evaluations are standard practice in most professional jobs.
Although there has been much progress on this front recently, about half of the states still do not mandate annual evaluations of teachers who have reached permanent or tenured status. The lack of regular evaluations is unique to the teaching profession and does little to advance the notion that teachers are professionals.

Further, teacher evaluations are too often treated as mere formalities rather than as important tools for rewarding good teachers, helping average teachers improve and holding weak teachers accountable for poor performance. State policy should reflect the importance of evaluations so that teachers and principals alike take their consequences seriously.

Evaluations are especially important for new teachers.
Individuals new to a profession frequently have reduced responsibilities coupled with increased oversight. As competencies are demonstrated, new responsibilities are added and supervision decreases. Such is seldom the case for new teachers, who generally have the same classroom responsibilities as veteran teachers, including responsibility for the academic progress of their students, but may receive limited feedback on their performance. In the absence of good metrics for determining who will be an effective teacher before he or she begins to teach, it is critical that schools and districts closely monitor the performance of new teachers.

The state should specifically require that districts observe new teachers early in the school year. This policy would help ensure that new teachers get the support they need early and that supervisors know from the beginning of the school year which new teachers (and which students) may be at risk. Subsequent observations provide important data about the teacher's ability to improve. Data from evaluations from the teacher's early years of teaching can then be used as part of the performance-based evidence to make a decision about tenure.

Frequency of Evaluations: Supporting Research
For the frequency of evaluations in government and private industry, see survey results from Hudson Employment Index's report: "Pay and Performance in America: 2005 Compensation and Benefits Report" Hudson Group (2005).

For research emphasizing the importance of evaluation and observations for new teachers in predicting future success and providing support for teachers see, D. Staiger and J. Rockoff, "Searching for Effective Teachers with Imperfect Information." Journal of Economic Perspectives. Volume 24, No. 3, Summer 2010, pp. 97-118.