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We believe that every child deserves effective teachers. As a nonpartisan research and policy organization, we recognize that for teachers to meet the challenge of educating diverse 21st century students to the high levels of achievement our nation needs, institutions with the greatest authority and influence over teachers must raise standards, recruit top candidates, provide better preparation, provide assistance and guidance, and recognize and reward excellence.

NCTQ's expert in-house staff with a team of subject specialist analysts and general analysts produced this report. Many have experience as classroom teachers who remember their own preparation and first days in the classroom. Many are veterans of NCTQ's 2013 and 2014 reports so have experience evaluating programs.

David W. Andrews Dean, Johns Hopkins University School of Education
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David W. Andrews has spent his entire career trying to better understand the developmental needs of children and their families and create innovative, evidence-based mechanisms to meet those needs.  He is currently Dean and Professor in the School of Education at Johns Hopkins University, and holds a professorial appointment in the Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dean Andrews was the founding dean of Ohio State University's merged College of Education and Human Ecology, and led the new college during its formative years. In addition, he founded and directed the Center for Learning Excellence of the John Glenn Institute for Public Service and Public Policy. Dean Andrews is currently focused on personalizing learning for the next generation in both k-12 and higher education.

Sir Michael Barber Chief Education Advisor, Pearson International
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Michael recently joined Pearson in the newly created position of Chief Education Advisor. Formerly a Partner at McKinsey and Company,  leading its global education practice, he has been working on major challenges of performance, organization and reform in government and the public services, especially education, in the USA, UK and other countries. From 2001-2005 he was the Founder and first Head of the Prime Minister's Delivery Unit where he was responsible for the oversight of implementation of the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair's priority programs including education among others. From 1997-2001, Michael was Chief Adviser to the UK Secretary of State for Education on School Standards, responsible for the implementation of the government's school reform program. Prior to joining government he was a Professor at the Institute of Education, University of London. He is the author of Instruction to Deliver and numerous other books and articles.

David Chard Dean, Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development, Southern Methodist University (SMU)
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David Chard was a public school teacher in California and a Peace Corps educator in Africa. He also served on the faculties of Boston University and the University of Texas at Austin. Prior to arriving at SMU, he was associate dean for curriculum and academic programs in the College of Education at the University of Oregon. He specializes in reading and math strategies for the early grades, special education and instructional methods for students with disabilities. He has published more than 30 research articles and co-authored 12 books. A principal investigator for several federal research projects in reading and math curricula, David is also a member of the International Academy for Research on Learning Disabilities and a past president of the Division for Research at the Council for Exceptional Children. He has authored more than 50 articles and was appointed in 2012 by President Obama to serve on the National Board of Directors of the Institute for Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education.

Ed Crowe Senior Adviser, Higher Education Programs, Carnegie Corporation of New York; Senior Advisor, Teaching Fellows Program, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation
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Ed has also provided consulting services on teacher quality and K-16 policy issues to several other organizations, including the State Higher Education Executive Officers and the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. He was the first director of the Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Program for the U.S. Department of Education, which awarded more than 90 competitive grants to states and to partnerships of universities and high-needs schools to improve the quality of teacher preparation policy and practice. Ed is co-editor (with Dr. Rena Subotnik) of the forthcoming book series Levers of Change in Education, and published a chapter on "Teaching as a Profession" in the 2008 Handbook of Research in Teacher Education. 

Harriet Fayne Dean, School of Education, Lehman College, City University of New York
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With more than thirty years of experience in higher education, Dr. Harriet R. Fayne, Dean, School of Education, Lehman College (City University of New York) has led initiatives to reform teacher preparation, showcase practitioner inquiry, build community partnerships, and foster institutional growth. Prior to accepting an appointment at Lehman, she spent sixteen years as chair of the education department at Otterbein University in Westerville, Ohio before becoming the inaugural dean of the School of Professional Studies. She has authored or co-authored 15 articles and book chapters that focus on teacher education redesign and presented her work at 20 international and national conferences. Dr. Fayne holds a B.A. with a major in American Studies from Barnard College, an M.A.T. in Social Studies Education from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from Columbia University.

Dan Goldhaber Director, Center for Education Data & Research (CEDR) and Professor in Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, University of Washington - Bothell
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Dan is co-editor of Education Finance and Policy, and a member of the Washington State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. He previously served as an elected member of the Alexandria City School Board from 1997-2002, and as an Associate Editor of Economics of Education Review.  Dan's work focuses on issues of educational productivity and reform at the K-12 level, the broad array of human capital policies that influence the composition, distribution, and quality of teachers in the workforce, and connections between students' K-12 experiences and post-secondary outcomes. His research has been regularly published in leading peer-reviewed economic and education journals such as: American Economic Review, Review of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Human Resources, Journal of Policy and Management, Journal of Urban Economics, Economics of Education Review, Education Finance and Policy, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, and Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 

Kati Haycock President, Education Trust
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Kati, one of the nation's leading child advocates in the field of education, currently serves as president of the Education Trust. Established in 1992, the Trust advocates for young people, especially those who are poor or members of minority groups, by providing hands-on assistance to urban school districts and universities working together to improve student achievement, kindergarten through college. Before arriving at the Education Trust, Kati served as executive vice president of the Children's Defense Fund, the nation's largest child-advocacy organization. A native Californian, she founded and served as president of the Achievement Council, a statewide organization that provides assistance to teachers and principals in predominantly minority schools. Previously, Kati served as director of the Outreach and Student Affirmative Action programs for the nine-campus University of California system.

Edward J. Kame'enui Dean-Knight Professor of Education and Associate Dean for Research and Outreach, University of Oregon
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Ed is Dean-Knight Professor and director of both the Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement and the Center on Teaching and Learning at the University of Oregon's College of Education. He is a native Hawaiian who attributes his scholarly interests in reading, writing systems and language development to his experience growing up speaking "pidgin English" and communicating, albeit haphazardly, with his deaf mother and twin brother. Ed served as the nation's first Commissioner of the National Center for Special Education Research in the Institute of Education Sciences, the research and statistical arm of the U.S. Department of Education. He has co-authored 16 college textbooks on teaching reading, curriculum design, vocabulary instruction, higher order thinking and classroom management. He has also authored more than 150 publications on a range of topics, including learning disabilities, early-reading intervention and vocabulary instruction and development. Between 1990 and 2010, Ed and his colleagues at the Center on Teaching and Learning were awarded more than $40 million in federal, state and private research and training funds, enabling them to direct and implement several national and state initiatives.

Cory Koedel Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Missouri
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Cory's primary research area is in the measurement and evaluation of outcome-based teacher quality. He has also written on several other topics in K-12 education including teacher preparation, teacher pensions, school choice, and curriculum evaluation. His work has been widely cited in top academic journals in the fields of economics, education and public policy. In 2008, Cory received the Outstanding Dissertation Award from the American Educational Research Association, Division L. In 2012 he received the Junior Scholar Award from the same group. He sits on several technical advisory panels for state and local education agencies to assist with issues related to school and teacher evaluations. 

Thomas Lasley Executive Director, Learn to Earn Dayton, Ohio
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Learn to Earn Dayton is a collaborative dedicated to ensuring that "every student will be ready to learn when entering kindergarten, ready to learn when graduating from high school, and ready to earn a living when graduating with a post-secondary credential." Tom was most recently dean of the School of Education and Allied Professions at the University of Dayton. He has published more than 70 articles in professional journals and has authored or co-authored 11 books, including Teaching Peace and Strategies for Teaching in a Diverse Society. Tom has served on a variety of regional and state education commissions and boards, including the Governor's Commission on Teaching Success and the Ohio Board of Regents' Planning and Accountability Committee. He co-founded the Dayton Early College Academy, a unique educational partnership between the University of Dayton and the Dayton Public Schools.

Doug Lemov Managing Director, Taxonomy Project, Uncommon Schools
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Doug  is also the founder and former president of School Performance, an Albany, New York-based nonprofit that provides diagnostic assessments, performance data analysis and academic consulting to high-performing charter schools. He is a founder and former principal of the Academy of the Pacific Rim Charter School in Boston, regarded as one of the highest performing urban charter schools in the country. After leaving Pacific Rim, he served as Vice President for Accountability at the State University of New York Charter Schools Institute, where he designed and implemented a rigorous school-accountability system. He has since served as a consultant to such organizations as KIPP, New Leaders for New Schools and Building Excellent Schools. Doug is a trustee of the New York Charter Schools Association and of KIPP Tech Valley Charter School. He is the author of the nationally recognized book Teach Like a Champion: 49 Techniques that Put Students on the Path to College

Meredith Liben Director of Literacy and English Language Arts, Student Achievement Partners
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Meredith assists states, districts, schools, publishers and organizations working to ensure strong student learning through implementation of the Common Core State Standards. She worked on the Common Core State Standards for ELA and is a member of the Common Core ELA Working Group. Specifically, she worked on the reading standards and ran the text complexity measurement studies that developed and validated tools for analyzing both quantitative and qualitative text complexity that are central to the CCSS. Meredith has taught in a wide range of settings over the past 30 years, spanning kindergarten through graduate school. She was an adjunct at Community College of Vermont, and taught reading and writing instructional methods courses in the Technology Extension program for new teachers transitioning from industry to the classroom.  Recently, she had a chance to combine her expertise in CTE and the Common Core as a member of the Promoting College and Career Ready Standards in ABE task force. The work of that group resulted in the publication of College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education

Linda Ann Patriarca Former Dean of the College of Education, East Carolina University
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Linda came to ECU from Caldwell College in New Jersey, where she spent two years as Associate Dean after having spent 25 years as a faculty member at Michigan State University. Since her arrival as Dean in August 2008, she has focused her efforts on transforming the culture to facilitate a data-driven and continuous improvement approach to teacher education. Projects supported by a U.S. Department of Education Teacher Quality Partnership (TQP) grant to improve and study teacher preparation have included collaborations with EPIC (the Educational Policy Institute at Carolina), Stanford University, and the Frank Porter Graham Institute (UNC-Chapel Hill). This ongoing work is also the subject of a Spencer Foundation-funded study examining how teacher education can become more data driven. In the course of her career, Linda has been involved in establishing and promoting university-school partnerships both through her work in the professional development schools movement and as a “turnaround” consultant to underachieving K-12 schools. She has also been active in national groups and task forces focusing on education, including serving as President of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children and as a national professional advisory board member for the Learning Disabilities Association of America.

Mark Schug Professor Emeritus, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
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Mark is also president of Mark Schug Consulting, for which he speaks and writes about economic education, market-based reforms and urban education issues. He offers advice on how to develop and implement curricula in economic and financial education, especially at the high school level. Mark taught middle and high school social studies before joining the faculties at the University of Minnesota and University of Wisconsin. He was an editor of The Senior Economist for the National Council on Economic Education from 1986 to 1996 and a senior fellow with the National Council on Economic Education from 2002 to 2005. 

Dr. Rebecca Herman Senior Policy Researcher and Education Chair
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Dr. Herman specializes in conducting and evaluating research on school improvement, as well as translating research to practice. Dr. Herman was Principal Investigator of the U.S. Department of Education's (ED)Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School Improvement Grants, and Project Director of the implementation sub-study. Further, she was Project Director of ED's recently completed study,Turning around Chronically Low Performing Schools. She chaired a panel to produce the Institute for Education Science's practice guide, synthesizing the research evidence on turning around chronically low-performing schools. 

Dr. Herman's earlier work on effective school reforms includes leadingAn Educators' Guide to Schoolwide Reform, a critical evaluation of the research and implementation of the most prominent and promising comprehensive school reforms, as well as leading the first five-year phase of theWhat Works Clearinghouse(WWC). She serves on several advisory panels, providing guidance on school improvement research, including the Education Writers Association National Research Advisory Panel and the Center for Disease Control's Guide for Community Preventive Services, and has provided Congressional testimony and briefings on school turnaround and reform.

Dr. Herman earned her PhD in sociology, specializing in education, at Johns Hopkins University. She trained and served as a teacher early in her career. 

Dr. Amber Northern Vice President for Research, Thomas B. Fordham Institute
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Dr. Northern (formerly WInkler) helps develop new research initiatives and manages Fordham's research studies. She has over 15 years of experience in educational evaluation, education policy, and secondary education.She has published in the areas of educational accountability, standardized testing, teacher quality, and educational technology, among others. 

Prior to joining Fordham, Dr. Northern served as Senior Study Director at Westat. In that role, she provided evaluation services for various federal, state, and local education agencies, as well as oversaw multiple research studies involving reading instruction, math and science educational partnerships, performance-based pay, drug prevention curricula, and more. 

Dr. Northern holds a PhD in education policy and evaluation from the University of Virginia and serves as an adjunct faculty member at UVA's Northern Virginia campus.She started her career as a high school classroom teacher.

Dr. William H. Schmidt University Distinguished Professor, Statistics and Education, Michigan State University
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Dr. Schmidt is director of the Center for the Study of Curriculum. He also serves as co-director of the Education Policy Center and holds faculty appointments in Statistics and Education. Previously he served as National Research Coordinator and Executive Director of the U.S. National Center which oversaw participation of the United States in the IEA sponsored Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).  He has published in numerous journals and has co-authored eight books including Why Schools Matter, Teacher Education Matters, and Inequality for All.  

In 2009, Dr. Schmidt was elected to the first group of Fellows in the American Educational Research Association. Dr. Schmidt served on the Steering Committee for Review of the Evaluation Data on the Effectiveness of NSF-Supported Mathematics Curriculum Materials. 

Dr. Schmidt received his AB in mathematics from Concordia College in River Forest, IL and his PhD from the University of Chicago in psychometrics and applied statistics. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate from Concordia University in 1997.

Dr. Mark Schneider Vice President, American Institutes for Research
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Previous to joining AIR, Dr. Schneider served as the U.S. Commissioner of Education Statistics (2005-2008). He is also a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. He is the author of numerous article and books on education policy. His most recent book, Getting to Graduation, edited with Andrew Kelly, was published in 2012 by Johns Hopkins University Press. His book, entitled Higher Education Accountability, edited with Kevin Carey, was published by Palgrave in December of 2010. Charter Schools: Hope or Hype?, written with Jack Buckley, was published by Princeton University Press in 2007.

Dr. Schneider's 2000 book, Choosing Schools, also published by Princeton University Press, won the Policy Study Organization's Aaron Wildavsky Best Book Award. Schneider has been working on increasing accountability by making data on college productivity more publicly available. To that end, he is one of the creators of www.collegemeasures.org, where he serves as President.

Dr. Schneider received his PhD in political science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1974.

Dr. Grover J. "Russ" Whitehurst Herman and George R. Brown Chair and Director of the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution
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Dr. Whitehurst was previously director of the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education; U.S. assistant secretary for Educational Research and Improvement; chair of the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook; and academic vice-president of the Merrill-Palmer Institute. 

As the first director of the Institute of Education Sciences within the U.S. Department of Education, he is widely acknowledged to have had a transforming effect on the quality, relevance, and utilization of education research.  Under his leadership, the Institute received numerous accolades, including a citation from the Office of Management and Budget for having, "transformed the quality and rigor of education research within the Department of Education and increased the demand for scientifically based evidence of effectiveness in the education field as a whole."

Prior to his federal service, he was a highly productive university-based researcher, with over 100 publications, the editorship of a leading scientific journal, and a high impact on other scholars in his field. 

Dr. Whitehurst received his PhD in experimental child psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1970.  

Elementary mathematics textbook evaluators
Dr. Richard Askey
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Dr. Askey is an emeritus professor at the University of Wisconsin, where he has taught since 1963. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and an Honorary Fellow of the Indiana Academy of Sciences. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1999.

Professor Askey's research has primarily been in special functions, which are extensions of the functions studied in high school. In addition to many research papers, he coauthored what is now one of the standard books on special functions. More recently he has become involved in issues regarding mathematics education and was on a plenary panel at the 10th International Congress on Mathematics Education. He has reviewed many mathematics education reports both nationally and for various states. He was an Edyth May Sliffe Award winner for his work with high school students.

Dr. Askey received his undergraduate degree from Washington University, his master's degree from Harvard University, and his PhD from Princeton University.

Dr. Andrew Chen
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Dr. Chen is the President of EduTron Corporation. Before founding EduTron he was a professor and a principal research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He continues to teach and conducts research in physics. He frequently consults with education research institutions, including the Institute for Education Science at the U.S. Dept. of Education, and Achieve, Inc. Dr. Chen is on the Common Core State Standards Development Team in Mathematics. Locally he is on the Mathematics and Science Advisory Council for the Massachusetts Board of Education.

Dr. Chen provides high quality professional development in mathematics and science to teachers at all levels through Intensive Immersion Institutes. He works with school districts and school administrators to increase their capacity to support excellent mathematics and science instruction. Dr. Chen also works with higher education institutions to develop rigorous and effective pre-service and in-service offerings in mathematics and science. He was an Adviser for the Massachusetts 2008 Guidelines for the Mathematical Preparation of Elementary Teachers.

Dr. Chen received a PhD in physics from Columbia University.

Dr. Mikhail Goldenberg
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Dr. Goldenberg was a middle school and high school mathematics teacher for three years in Ukraine. Between 1964-1997, he was a professor of mathematics in South Ural State University in Chelyabinsk, Russia. He has worked with advanced high school students in Chelyabinsk Litseum and mathematics teachers at the Institute for Teachers Advance.

Dr. Goldenberg came to the United States in 1997 and became a mathematics teacher for the Ingenuity Project sponsored by the Abell Foundation. He is now the mathematics department head and teaches all the high school mathematics courses. He has led the Ingenuity Math Club for 10 years and is a part-time lecturer at Morgan State University.

Dr. Goldenberg graduated from Odessa State University in 1961 with a master's degree in mathematics and mathematics education. He then received his doctorate degree in Mathematics (Group Theory) in 1970 from Ural State University (Ekaterinburg).

Dr. Roger Howe
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Dr. Howe has been teaching and conducting research in the Mathematics Department at Yale University for over 35 years. He is currently the William Kenan Jr. Professor of Mathematics. His mathematical research concerns symmetry and its applications. He has held visiting positions at many universities and research institutes in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Howe devotes substantial attention to issues of mathematics education. He has served on a multitude of committees, including those for several of the major reports on mathematics education of the past decade. He has reviewed mathematics texts and other instructional materials at all levels, from first grade through college. He has served as a member and as chair of the Committee on Education of the American Mathematical Society. He served on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Advanced Study Park City Mathematics Institute, and has helped to organize a series of meetings at Park City devoted to increasing the contribution of mathematicians in mathematics education, especially refining understanding of the mathematical issues in K-12 mathematics curricula. Dr. Howe is currently a member of the U.S. National Committee on Mathematics Instruction and the Executive Commission on Mathematics Education. In 2006, he received the Award for Distinguished Public Service from the American Mathematical Society. He was also a member of the Mathematics Work Team for the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics.

Dr. Howe received his BS in mathematics from Harvard University in 1964, winning the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition. He obtained his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1969.

Dr. R. James Milgram
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Dr. James Milgram is an emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University where he has taught since 1970. Among other honors, Dr. Milgram has held the Gauss Professorship at the University of Goettingen and the Regents Professorship at the University of New Mexico. He has published over 100 research papers and four books, as well as serving as an editor of many others. His main area of research is algebraic and geometric topology, and he currently works on questions in robotics and protein folding.

Dr. Milgram was a member of the National Board of Education Sciences -- the presidential board that oversees the Institute for Education Research at the U.S. Department of Education. He was also a member of the NASA Advisory Council, and was a member of the Achieve Mathematics Advisory Panel as well as a number of other advisory boards. He was one of the members of the Common Ground Project that included Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Jeremy Kilpatrick, Richard Schaar, and Wilfried Schmid. From 2002 to 2005, Dr. Milgram headed a project funded by the U.S. Department of Education that identified and described the key mathematics that K-8 teachers need to know. He also helped to direct a project that evaluated state mathematics assessments. He is one of the four main authors of the California mathematics standards, as well as one of the two main authors of the California Mathematics Framework. He is one of the main authors of the Michigan and Georgia K-8 mathematics standards.

Dr. Milgram received his undergraduate and master's degrees in mathematics from the University of Chicago, and his PhD in mathematics from the University of Minnesota.

Dr. Yoram Sagher
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Dr. Sagher is professor of mathematics at Florida Atlantic University and emeritus professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois, Chicago. He has written more than 55 research papers in Harmonic Analysis, Real Analysis, and Interpolation Theory and three research papers in mathematics education. Dr. Sagher directed ten doctoral dissertations in mathematics and one in mathematics education. He directed the doctoral dissertation of M.V. Siadat: "Building Study and Work Skills in a College Mathematics Classroom." For his work implementing the methods developed in that paper, Dr. Siadat was named "Illinois Professor of the Year" in 2005 by the Carnegie Foundation.

Dr. Sagher taught numerous continuing education courses for in-service elementary school and high school teachers in Chicago. He also created the course "Methods of Teaching High School Mathematics" at the University of Illinois, Chicago. The course serves as the capstone course for students preparing to become high school mathematics teachers. Dr. Sagher developed highly effective teaching methods that, in combination with the Singapore mathematics textbooks, have produced outstanding results in elementary and middle schools from Boston to Los Angeles, including The Ingenuity Project in Baltimore and Ramona Elementary in Los Angeles. He co-organized two international conferences in mathematics education: Numeracy and Beyond I, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, July 2003, and a follow-up conference, Numeracy and Beyond II, Banff, Canada, December 2004. He provided a week-long intensive workshop to teachers in Trinidad in July 2010. In 2012 he was hired by the World Bank to counsel the Secretary of Education of Rio de Janeiro.

Dr. Sagher received his BS degree from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, and his PhD from the University of Chicago.

Early reading textbook evaluators
Dr. Marcia Davidson
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Dr. Davidson is the Global Director of Reading and Writing Instruction for Room to Read, an organization with reading intervention programs in nine countries in Asia and Africa. She is a nationally certified school psychologist and worked in public schools for 15 years, serving children and families from preschool through age 21. She was a faculty member in both elementary education and special education departments at the university level, teaching courses in reading methods and assessment for 12 years. More recently, Dr. Davidson began to focus on reading programs in poor countries. She designed an early reading intervention and provided technical assistance in the implementation of the Liberia USAID/World Bank EGRA Plus early grade reading project, and worked as a Senior Technical Advisor in the scaling up of this project for 1 ½ years during a residency in Liberia working for RTI International. In her current role, she works with her country teams on reading program design in local languages, classroom program implementation, classroom support, community engagement and partnerships, assessment and program impact. She has published studies in reading and reading assessment; current research interests include evaluating the impact of reading interventions in local languages, continuous assessment approaches, and effective teacher professional development in poor countries.

Dr. Davidson earned her BA in elementary education from Webster University, her MS in community-school psychology from Central Florida University and her PhD in special education from the University of Washington.

Dr. Deborah Glaser
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Dr. Glaser is an educational consultant and professional development provider with expertise in reading assessment and a vast knowledge of instructional methods derived from trusted research. During Dr. Glaser's many varied years in education she experienced both elementary and middle school classrooms, learning disability instruction, and served as Director of Education of the Lee Pesky Learning Center, in Boise, Idaho, where she oversaw the development of remedial programs for individuals with dyslexia. She has assisted universities with the development of research based reading curricula and established training and consultation programs to support the success of state and national reading initiatives. Deborah was advisor to Idaho's Legislative Reading Committee and a principal author of Idaho's Reading Initiative. Dr. Glaser is a National Trainer of the distinguished teacher curriculum Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling. She consults with national policy institutes regarding quality reading instruction and teacher preparation, and assists schools and districts with the implementation of scientifically based reading programs and strengthening practitioners' collaborative efforts toward improved instruction and student reading abilities. Dr. Glaser is author of ParaReading: A Training Guide for Tutors and LETRS Foundations: An Introduction to Language and Literacy coauthored with Dr. Louisa Moats. Her most recent publication is Next STEPS in Literacy Instruction.

Dr. Glaser received her doctorate in curriculum and instruction with specific focus on reading and school reform from Boise State University.

Dr. Anne Whitney
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Dr. Whitney is a clinical professor in the Speech, Language, Hearing Sciences Department at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She has extensive clinical and teaching expertise in language learning disabilities, with particular expertise in dyslexia. She has taught numerous university courses and has trained graduate students clinically in methods for assessment and intervention of dyslexia and other language learning disabilities. Her background includes working in public school settings from grades K-12, teaching in regular classrooms and special education classes. Dr. Whitney is a certified National Trainer for Louisa Moats' Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling (LETRS) and is a frequent presenter at local, state, and national conferences. Dr. Whitney is coauthor of Games and Activities for Readers and Spellers, and the Instructional Resource Guide for Teachers. She has also co-authored A Coach's Guide to Teaching Reading Essentials with Linda Farrell and Louisa Moats and SPELL-Links to Reading and Writing-2 with Dr. Jan Wasowicz, Dr. Kenn Apel, and Dr. Julie Masterson. Dr. Whitney serves on several state literacy committees and is a past member of the board of directors of the Rocky Mountain Branch of the International Dyslexia Association.

Dr. Whitney earned her MS in hearing and speech sciences and her MS in communications disorders from Colorado State University; she earned her EdD in special education from the University of Northern Colorado.

Elementary mathematics course syllabus reviewers
Aileen Corso
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Aileen Corso majored in mathematical sciences at Loyola University Maryland. She taught middle school math and algebra 1 in Baltimore City and completed her MAT at the Johns Hopkins University. She wrote and edited mathematics curriculum and assessment materials for ALEKS, an educational software company, and Kaplan K-12. Ms. Corso began working with NCTQ in 2007 as an analyst for No Common Denominator (2008), the NCTQ national study of math preparation of elementary teachers.

Felicity Ross
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Felicity Ross studied mathematics and psychology at the University of Michigan. Upon graduation, she joined Teach For America, becoming a middle school mathematics teacher in Baltimore. Having loved her two years with TFA, she continued teaching for seven more years. Felicity transitioned from the classroom to taking on a variety of education-related consulting roles, from teaching graduate courses at the Johns Hopkins University to teaching online courses for Maryland Public Television. Ms. Ross began working with NCTQ in 2007 as an analyst for No Common Denominator (2008), the NCTQ national study of math preparation of elementary teachers.

Catherine Guthrie
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Catherine Guthrie majored in history education with a minor in mathematics at the University of Delaware. She taught social studies in grades 9-12 in the Charles County Public Schools and Fairfax County Public Schools for 10 years and completed her Masters of Educational Leadership degree at George Mason University. She has worked as a math tutor. Ms. Guthrie began working with NCTQ in 2011 as one or the first general analysts for the Teacher Prep Review.

Early reading course syllabus reviewers
Heidi Abraham
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Heidi Abraham has a BS in elementary education and a MS in special education. She is an Associate Clinical Professor at Brigham Young University in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Special Education. Her area of expertise is in children with mild to moderate disabilities including learning disabilities, communication disorders and high-functioning autism. At BYU, she teaches courses on inclusion for students with disabilities in secondary general education classrooms and reading instruction for students with mild to moderate disabilities. She also supervises student teachers and interns who are preparing for licensure as Special Educators with a Mild to Moderate Endorsement.

Mary Alibrandi
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Mary Alibrandi has a BA in Elementary Education and a MEd in Special Education, specializing in Language, Literacy, and Learning Disabilities. She is currently a Vanderbilt University Mentor who supervises graduate and undergraduate student teachers during their placements in Metro Nashville Public Schools (MNPS). She recently had the opportunity to work as a consultant for the University of Tennessee during the development of its Common Core State Standards (CCSS) toolkit website and on the CCSS Crosswalk Report. She worked for MNPS as a Reading First literacy leader from 2004-2010 and presented at district and regional conferences for MNPS and the Tennessee State Department of Education. Prior to that, Mrs. Alibrandi worked as a resource teacher and Title I/Reading Recovery teacher in MNPS since 1997. She is currently working on her Administrative Licensure through Lipscomb University. Mrs. Alibrandi enjoys helping schools implement research-based practices to help students achieve success and empowering teachers to meet the individual needs of all students.

Melissa Brock
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Melissa Brock has a BA in Special Education and a MEd in Reading Education. She is the Assistant Director for Adolescent Services at the Tennessee Center for the Study and Treatment of Dyslexia at Middle Tennessee State University. Prior to her current position, she served as a Reading First literacy leader for the Metro Nashville Public Schools, supporting teachers and students in grades K-3. She has also taught special education, Reading Recovery, and second grade. Currently, she is a doctoral student in the Ph.D. in Literacy Studies program at Middle Tennessee State University. Ms. Brock is a past president of the Tennessee Reading Association and a member of the association's Board of Directors.

Susan Clarke
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Susan Clarke has a MEd in elementary education. She, taught third and fifth grades for 23 years. She worked as a Reading First Literacy Coach for seven years and served as Regional Trainer when implementing the new Reading/Language Arts standards. Mrs. Clarke is currently working in Hardin County School district in Savannah, TN as a Federal Programs Facilitator. Her duties include professional development and training teachers on reading strategies and assessments as the district transitions to the Common Core Standards. She is also the 21stCCLC Project Director, overseeing three schools in before and after school tutoring and enrichment activities, as well as summer school for approximately 300 students.

Gordon Gibb
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Gordon Gibb has a MEd in educational leadership and a PhD in special education. He taught reading, writing, and spelling to students with mild/moderate disabilities for 16 years prior to his appointment at Brigham Young University in 1995. He has lived in Taiwan, collaborated with university faculty in China, and directed an English-medium school in India. His research focuses on effective reading and mathematics instruction for students with learning difficulties.

Robert P. Marino
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Robert P. Marino has a MAT in early childhood education. He taught the early grades for eight years and spent 12 years as an elementary school principal. He served on the National Expert Review Panel for "Reading First." As an EDC Senior Scientist, he worked for two years as International Literacy Consultant to the Ministry of Education in the Republic of Guyana. Mr. Marino held a number of school restructuring and literacy consulting positions with Maryland State Department of Education, Baltimore City Schools, and a consortium of charter schools. He spent two years working at the Charles Darwin Research Station in the Galapagos Islands where he assisted the Provincial Ministry of Education to create "green" schools. He has taught as an adjunct instructor at several universities including Johns Hopkins University, Temple University, the University of Maryland, and Towson University. 

Julie Shirer
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Julie Shirer has a MEd in educational leadership. She taught first and third grades for eight years prior to teaching reading to students with learning difficulties. She worked as a Reading First Literacy Coach and served as a Tennessee State Trainer when implementing new Language Arts standards. Mrs. Shirer is currently working in Cleveland City Schools in Cleveland, TN as an Instructional Facilitator. Her duties include professional development and mentoring as they train and transition to the Common Core State Standards.

Jamie Snyder
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Jamie Snyder, earned a BA and MEd in education and an EdD as an educational specialist. She is currently the Principal at Corryton Elementary School in Knoxville, TN. She has also served as Assistant Principal at East Knox County Elementary School in the Knox County Schools District. A member of the inaugural Leadership Academy Cohort, she served as Assistant Principal at Ritta Elementary School for her administrative residency internship. Her passion for leadership and mentoring began at Inskip Elementary School where she served as a Literacy Leader for Reading First in Tennessee. Her teaching career began at Mount Olive Elementary School where she taught kindergarten, fourth and first grades.

Shirley Zongker
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Shirley Zongker has a BA in elementary education and a MEd with a concentration in urban education. She is an adjunct professor at University of Maryland Baltimore County, teaching courses on educational leadership. Her work there has also included preparing and developing career changer, graduate level classroom teachers. As a former collegiate graduate level program coordinator and public school teacher and administrator in the Baltimore City Public School System, she wrote, implemented, and evaluated curriculum in all elementary areas and served as an area curriculum resource officer.

Special education course syllabus reviewers
Dr. Sarah E. Carlson
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Dr. Sarah E. Carlson, is an Institute of Education Sciences (IES) postdoctoral research fellow at the Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL) at the University of Oregon. She holds a doctorate and a master's degree in Educational Psychology, having focused on the psychological foundations of education, learning and cognition program. Her current research focuses on reading comprehension, assessment, and interventions for struggling elementary and adolescent readers.

Dr. Nancy J. Nelson-Walker
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Dr. Nancy J. Nelson-Walker, is a Research Associate at the Center on Teaching and Learning at the University of Oregon, with expertise in instructional design and assessment in early reading and mathematics. She holds a doctorate in School Psychology from the University of Oregon and a master's degree in Special Education from San Francisco State University. Dr. Nelson-Walker is a licensed school psychologist in Oregon and a licensed special education teacher in Oregon and California. She is a former middle and high school special education teacher with experience training pre- and in-service teachers to work in diverse, urban schools.

Dr. Jessica Turtura
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Dr. Turtura is a Research Associate at the Center on Teaching and Learning at the University of Oregon. Her research interests include effective instructional practices to support all learners, academic and behavioral interventions, and implementation of school-wide, coordinated instructional and assessment practices. Her school and district experience involves providing professional development at the local and state levels to support implementation of effective positive behavior and literacy practices.

Each of the standards of the Teacher Prep Review is scored by a specially trained team. In the case of five standards—Early Reading, Early Reading for English Language Learners, Struggling Readers, Elementary Mathematics, and Instructional Design in Special Education—the scoring teams comprise subject specialists who participated in rigorous training processes.65 Teams comprising "general analysts" who undergo both a thorough screening in the hiring process and a rigorous training process rate all other standards. The figure below illustrates how general analysts were selected and trained.

The Achelis Foundation Longfield Family Foundation
The Anschutz Foundation The Lynch Foundation
Arthur & Toni Rembe Rock The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation  
The Belk Foundation The Osa Foundation
The Boston Foundation The Powell Foundation
The Bruni Foundation Rodel Foundation of Delaware
Chamberlin Family Foundation The Sartain Lanier Family Foundation
Charles Cahn Searle Freedom Trust
The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation Sid W. Richardson Foundation
Finnegan Family Foundation Sidney A. Swensrud Foundation
George Kaiser Family Foundation Trefler Foundation
The Irene E. & George A. Davis Foundation    W.K. Kellogg Foundation
The James M. Cox Foundation Walker Foundation
Laura and John Arnold Foundation William E. Simon Foundation
Anonymous (4)

As an educator, I know that one of the strongest in-school influences on students is the teacher in front of the classroom. As a nation, there is so much more we can do to help prepare our teachers and create a diverse educator workforce. Prospective teachers need good information to select the right program; school districts need access to the best trained professionals for every opening in every school; and preparation programs need feedback about their graduates' experiences in schools to refine their programs. These regulations will help strengthen teacher preparation so that prospective teachers get off to the best start they can, and preparation programs can meet the needs of students and schools for great educators.
-- U.S. Secretary of Education, John B. King Jr.

Raising the quality of educator preparation is a vital part of giving the teaching profession the respect it deserves and NCTQ does an important service by tracking programs across the country. While there is more work to be done in our state, I am proud that our higher ed community, legislature, and education department have come together to improve prep programs and give our talented prospective teachers access to the best possible training. That means higher criteria for student admissions, higher-quality student teaching experiences, and a requirement that graduates pass both a performance assessment and a traditional written exam. The progress noted in NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review of the University of Delaware and Wilmington University provides further encouragement that we are moving in the right direction.
-- Governor of Delaware, Jack Markell

I look forward to getting your new report on teacher preparation programs. I think it is extremely important to our children's futures that we have phenomenal teacher training programs.
-- Marshall Tuck, Educator in Residence, New Teacher Center

Our nation's schools need well prepared new teachers. The NCTQ Teacher Prep Review is the only tool currently available that makes it possible to assess program quality.
-- Bernadeia Johnson, Assistant Professor at Minnesota State University, Mankato State

There's no more important work for a university to undertake than to prepare the next generation of teachers. That's why I'm determined to make The Educators College at Marian University a national exemplar for teacher preparation, and I'm grateful to NCTQ for lighting the path to help get us there.
-- Daniel J. Elsener, President, Marian University

To enable all students to succeed, we must prepare all teachers to succeed. NCTQ's Review shows that too many of our nation's teacher prep programs are not yet where they need to be. Especially, there is a need for more courses that give aspiring teachers the background necessary to teach elementary content in greater depth, and more high-quality practice teaching experiences before teachers start in their own classrooms. I hope that teacher prep programs, in Ohio and around the world, take advantage of this constructive criticism and follow these suggestions aimed at helping them become even better.
-- Former Ohio Governor, Robert Taft

Many college teacher education programs fail to produce graduates who are more effective in the classroom than teachers with just a few weeks of pre-service training. These deficiencies are unfair to the teachers themselves, but also devastating to students--especially the low-income students and students of color who are most likely to be taught by novice teachers. To end this dangerous practice, teacher prep programs need to know where they are falling short. NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review provides colleges with clear criteria for improving their programs.
-- Kati Haycock, CEO, The Education Trust

Great teachers are the single most important influence on learning inside schools. NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review provides invaluable information about how colleges and universities in Iowa and across the nation can strengthen their elementary teacher preparation programs, which is one key to giving all students a globally competitive education. I am pleased the University of Iowa, St. Ambrose University, Iowa State University, Grand View University and Faith Baptist Bible College scored so well. I am confident that all Iowa teacher preparation programs are committed to continuous improvement.
-- Governor of Iowa, Terry Branstad

I enthusiastically endorse the 2016 Teacher Prep Review of colleges of education. Slow progress is being made towards teaching all the five essential components of reading instruction to undergraduate teachers entering our elementary schools. 65% of 4th grade students still cannot read proficiently, even though we spend more money on education than any other nation on earth. Multiple scientific studies have proven that these five components are critical if K-3 students are to learn to read proficiently. Let's shine a light on this issue until ALL 1400 schools of education follow suit!
-- Robert W. Sweet, Jr., President, The National Right to Read Foundation

There is nothing more important to the success of a student than a great teacher, so it is critical all educators are prepared to teach at a high level. By grading teacher prep programs based on evidence-based criteria, NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review shines a spotlight on a frequently overlooked but vital component of America's education system. I hope programs carefully consider these findings and take steps to improve.
-- Governor Jeb Bush

From our funders
Nothing is more important to our nation's well being than the quality of our nation's teachers. To that end, nothing is more important than that they are first prepared well. Unfortunately, our higher education institutions have too often failed to meet this grave obligation. That's why I stand fully behind NCTQ's willingness not only to shine a harsh light on these institutions but to light a path forward.
-- Arthur Rock

The dedicated individuals who choose to go into teaching deserve the best possible training for their important work. For too long too many of our nation's teachers have been shortchanged by their preparation programs. The Broad Foundation is proud to support the Teacher Prep Review, which helps schools of education raise the bar so that their graduates can be successful in the classroom.
-- Gregory McGinity, Executive Director of The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation

Increasing the number of students in the US who can read proficiently is absolutely critical. That's why the gains revealed by NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review are so important. The Review shows that more programs are training aspiring teachers in evidence-based strategies for teaching reading. We hope that shining a light on those programs will move the needle for all of our students.
-- Johanna Anderson, Executive Director, The Belk Foundation

The Osa Foundation is proud to support NCTQ's Teacher Prep Review, an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the nation's programs preparing our future teachers. By holding up a mirror to program quality, the Review is helping raise the standard of teacher training in Illinois and across the nation.
-- Robin Lavin, President, The Osa Foundation

The Lynch Foundation is proud to support the Teacher Prep Review. The Review provides important research that brings to light both strengths and weaknesses of our nation's teacher preparation programs. We hope teacher prep programs will use this research to help their graduates become more effective teachers who can lead students to greater levels of achievement.
-- Katie Everett, Executive Director, The Lynch Foundation